### 3: The flow of energy drives processes of change in all biological, chemical, physical, and geological systems. Energy stored in a variety of sources can be transformed into other energy forms, which influence many facets of our daily lives. The forms of energy involved and the properties of the materials involved influence the nature of the energy transformations and the mechanisms by which energy is transferred. The conservation of energy is a law that can be used to analyze and build understandings of diverse physical and biological systems.

#### 3.1: Energy takes many forms. These forms can be grouped into types of energy that are associated with the motion of mass (kinetic energy), and types of energy associated with the position of mass and with energy fields (potential energy).

3.1.1: Explain that the quantity of radiant energy delivered to a surface every second can be viewed in two different ways. Use the concept of waves to describe that the energy delivered by electromagnetic radiation depends on the amplitude and frequency of the electromagnetic waves. Use the particle model of electromagnetic radiation (energy is carried by packets of electromagnetic energy called photons) to explain that the radiant energy delivered depends on the frequency of the radiation and the number of packets striking the surface per second.

#### 3.3: Energy readily transforms from one form to another, but these transformations are not always reversible. The details of these transformations depend upon the initial form of the energy and the properties of the materials involved. Energy may transfer into or out of a system and it may change forms, but the total energy cannot change.

3.3.1: Use the model of discrete electronic energy states in an atom to describe how the atom can emit or absorb packets of electromagnetic energy (photons) having specific energies. Demonstrate how prisms, diffraction gratings or other optical devices can be used to analyze the light coming from different substances, and how this analysis can be useful in the identification of elements and compounds.

3.3.2: Use diagrams to show how concave reflecting devices and convex lenses can be used to collect and focus EM waves.

3.3.4: Create light ray diagrams to illustrate how converging devices are used to collect and focus waves in scientific devices (e.g., telescopes and microscopes).

### 4: Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal principles of gravitation allow predictions regarding the motions of objects within the Galaxy and beyond. Earth's motion, position, and posture account for a variety of cyclic events observable from Earth. While the composition of planets vary considerably, their components and the applicable laws of science are universal. The motions and interactions of objects within the Solar System are consistent with the hypothesis that it emerged from a large disk of gas and dust. Our Solar System is part of the Milky Way Galaxy, which, in turn, is one of many galaxies in the known Universe.

#### 4.1: Observable, predictable patterns of movement in the Sun, Earth, Moon system occur because of gravitational interaction and energy from the Sun.

4.1.4: Discuss the many ways in which the Sun influences Earth including the role of gravity, coronal mass ejections, and electromagnetic radiation including gamma photons.

#### 4.3: The Universe is composed of galaxies that are composed of solar systems, all of which are composed of the same elements and governed by the same laws.

4.3.1: Describe the relative size differences and distances between planetary systems, stars, multiple-star galaxies, star clusters, galaxies, and galactic groups in the Universe.

4.3.2: Explain why the force of gravity is responsible for many phenomena in the Universe including the formation and life cycle of galaxies, stars, and planetary systems. Explain how gravity influences the motion of bodies in the Universe including tides and maintaining orbits of planets.

4.3.4: Explain the life history of stars in terms of luminosity, size and temperature using the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram. Compare and contrast stellar evolution based on mass (black hole, neutron star, white dwarf).

4.3.5: Explain the Big Bang Theory and how it is supported by evidence that includes microwave background radiation and red shift. Cite research supporting the Big Bang Theory as the most scientifically accepted theory explaining the formation of the Universe.

#### 4.4: Technology expands our knowledge of the Universe.

4.4.1: Describe how the composition of stars can be determined by analysis of their spectra. Compare the elements that compose stars to those that compose Earth.

### 8: Organisms are linked to one another in an ecosystem by the flow of energy and the cycling of materials. Humans are an integral part of the natural system and human activities can alter the stability of ecosystems.

#### 8.1: Organisms and their environments are interconnected. Changes in one part of the system will affect other parts of the system.

8.1.1: Identify and measure biological, chemical and physical indicators within a given ecosystem (pH, dissolved oxygen, macroinvertebrate and other indicator species, salinity).

8.1.2: Using models, computer simulations, or graphic representations, demonstrate how, changes in these indicators may affect interactions within ecosystems. Evaluate the current health of the ecosystem and suggest possible interventions for mitigation.

8.1.4: Explain how niches help to increase the diversity within an ecosystem and maximize the number of populations that can live in the same habitat.

8.1.5: Using graphs of population data of a predator and its prey, describe the patterns observed. Explain how the interactions of predator and prey generate these patterns, and predict possible future trends in these populations.

8.1.9: Describe how the biotic and abiotic factors can act as selective pressures on a population and can alter the diversity of the ecosystem over time.

8.1.10: Identify limiting factors in an ecosystem and explain why these factors prevent populations from reaching biotic potential. Predict the effects on a population if these limiting factors were removed. Explain why a population reaching unlimited biotic potential can be detrimental to the ecosystem.

8.1.11: Determine the carrying capacity for a population in an ecosystem using graphical representations of population data.

#### 8.2: Matter needed to sustain life is continually recycled among and between organisms and the environment. Energy from the Sun flows irreversibly through ecosystems and is conserved as organisms use and transform it.

8.2.1: Illustrate how elements on Earth cycle among the biotic and abiotic components of the biosphere.

8.2.4: Explain how ecosystems that do not rely on radiant energy obtain energy to maintain life.

8.2.5: Explain how the inefficiency of energy transfer determines the number of trophic levels and affects the relative number of organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem.

#### 8.3: Humans can alter the living and non-living factors within an ecosystem, thereby creating changes to the overall system.

8.3.4: Analyze ways in which human activity (i.e., producing food, transporting materials, generating energy, disposing of waste, obtaining fresh water, or extracting natural resources) can affect ecosystems and the organisms within.

Correlation last revised: 5/9/2018

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.