2: Materials exist throughout our physical world. The structures of materials influence their physical properties, chemical reactivity and use.

2.1: The structures of materials determine their properties.

2.1.1: Construct models or diagrams (Lewis Dot structures, ball and stick models, or other models) of common compounds and molecules (i.e., NaCl, SiO2, O2, H2, CO2) and distinguish between ionically and covalently bonded compounds. Based on the location of their component elements on the Periodic Table, explain the elements tendency to transfer or share electrons.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

2.1.3: Explain that unstable isotopes undergo spontaneous nuclear decay, emitting energy or particles and energy.

 Nuclear Decay

2.1.5: Describe the composition of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and the shielding necessary to prevent penetration.

 Nuclear Decay

2.1.6: Use the half life of a radioactive isotope to calculate the amount of remaining radioactive substance after an integral number of half-lives.

 Half-life

2.1.7: Use kinetic molecular theory to explain changes in gas volume, pressure, and temperature.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

2.1.8: Perform simple calculations to show that if the temperature is held constant, changes in pressure and volume of an enclosed gas have an inverse relationship. (Boyles Law).

 Boyle's Law and Charles' Law

2.1.9: Perform simple calculations to show that if the pressure is held constant, changes in temperature (in Kelvin) and volume of an enclosed gas have a direct relationship. (Charles Law).

 Boyle's Law and Charles' Law

2.1.10: Perform simple calculations to show that if the volume is held constant, changes in pressure and temperature (in Kelvin) of an enclosed gas have a direct relationship (Gay- Lussac's Law).

 Boyle's Law and Charles' Law

2.1.11: Use the Periodic Table to show trends within periods and groups (families) regarding atomic size, size of ions, ionization energies and electronegativity.

 Electron Configuration
 Ionic Bonds

2.2: The properties of a mixture are based on the properties of its components.

2.2.2: Collect data to calculate the unknown concentration of a solution by performing an acidbase titration using an appropriate indicator. Describe neutralization reactions using chemical equations.

 Titration

2.3: When materials interact within a closed system, the total mass of the system remains the same.

2.3.1: Recognize that one mole is the amount of any substance that contains 6.02 x 1023 (Avogadro's number) representative particles of that substance. This quantity of particles will have the mass equivalent to the molecular weight (molar mass).

 Stoichiometry

2.3.3: Determine how the mass of the products compares to the mass of the reactants in chemical investigations. Show how this comparison links to the appropriate balanced chemical equation.

 Chemical Equations

2.4: There are several ways in which elements and/or compounds react to form new substances and each reaction involves energy.

2.4.1: Conduct experiments and provide evidence (e.g., formation of a precipitate, evolution of gas, change of color, release/absorption of energy in the form of heat, light, or sound) to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.

 Chemical Changes
 Equilibrium and Concentration

2.4.2: Identify, name and write formulae for covalent and ionic compounds.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

2.4.3: Describe chemical reactions using correct chemical formulae and balance the resulting chemical equation.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Changes
 Chemical Equations
 Equilibrium and Concentration

2.4.4: Classify various reactions as synthesis (combination), single replacement, double replacement, decomposition or combustion.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations
 Dehydration Synthesis
 Equilibrium and Concentration

2.4.5: Explain whether or not a chemical reaction would occur given a set of reactants. Predict the product(s) if the reactions would occur.

 Chemical Equations
 Equilibrium and Concentration

2.4.6: Investigate factors (e.g., presence of a catalyst, temperature, concentration) that influence reaction rates.

 Collision Theory

3: The flow of energy drives processes of change in all biological, chemical, physical, and geological systems. Energy stored in a variety of sources can be transformed into other energy forms, which influence many facets of our daily lives. The forms of energy involved and the properties of the materials involved influence the nature of the energy transformations and the mechanisms by which energy is transferred. The conservation of energy is a law that can be used to analyze and build understandings of diverse physical and biological systems.

3.1: Energy takes many forms. These forms can be grouped into types of energy that are associated with the motion of mass (kinetic energy), and types of energy associated with the position of mass and with energy fields (potential energy).

3.1.1: Conduct investigations to identify how the rotational kinetic energy of an object depends on the object's mass, angular speed (rpm), and its geometry (for example; solid and hollow spheres, solid and hollow cylinders, rings).

 Inclined Plane - Rolling Objects

3.1.2: Conduct investigations to show that rolling objects have two kinds of kinetic energy, linear kinetic energy (LKE), and rotational kinetic energy (RKE). For example, a ball released on a ramp from a height, h, will consistently reach the bottom of the ramp with less linear kinetic energy than its GPE at the top of the ramp. The RKE of the rolling object explains the difference.

 Inclined Plane - Rolling Objects

3.2: Changes take place because of the transfer of energy. Energy is transferred to matter through the action of forces. Different forces are responsible for the transfer of the different forms of energy.

3.2.1: Use the inverse square law to describe how the force of gravity changes over long distances (for example, describe the forces acting on the Voyager Space Probes as they moved through the solar system).

 Gravitational Force
 Pith Ball Lab

3.2.2: Conduct investigations to determine the relative sizes of static and kinetic frictional forces acting between two surfaces.

 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Pith Ball Lab

3.2.7: Describe the factors that contribute to the size of an electric force acting between charged particles (i.e., the size of an electric force depends upon the size of the charges involved and the distance between the charges). Recognize that the electric force is an inverse square force like the gravitational force.

 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Pith Ball Lab

3.2.8: Use a sketch of this force to describe how its influence changes as the distance between the charges increases.

 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Pith Ball Lab

3.2.9: Recognize that the gravitational forces acting between objects the size of people or even large trucks is negligible compared to their weight (for example, FGrav acting between two people standing 1m apart on the Earth's surface is less than one billionth the size of their weight). Also recognize that gravitational forces between particles at the molecular level are completely negligible when compared to electric forces that act between these particles (FGrav/Felectric<10-30).

 Pith Ball Lab

3.2.13: Conduct investigations to show how forces acting between permanent magnets and conducting coils carrying electric currents can be used to create electric motors.

 Electromagnetic Induction

3.2.14: Use diagrams to show how magnets and rotating coils can be used to create electric currents.

 Electromagnetic Induction

3.2.20: Reflect on how forces can collectively act on the object and not change its motion (basis of Newton's 1st Law).

 Fan Cart Physics

3.2.21: Conduct investigations to reach qualitative and quantitative conclusions regarding the effects of the size of the total force and the object's mass on its resulting acceleration (Newton's 2nd Law, a = Ftotat/m). Observe how the direction of the acceleration relates to the direction of the total force.

 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics

3.2.22: Use examples to illustrate the differences between mass and force and explain why only forces can change the motion of objects.

 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics

3.2.24: Use Newton's Second Law to calculate the acceleration of objects that are subject to common forces (for example, gravity, constant pushing or pulling forces and/or friction).

 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics

3.2.25: Use vector diagrams to show how the direction of the acceleration (relative to the direction of the velocity) can be used to determine if the speed of the object will increase or decrease, and if the direction of motion will change.

 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

3.2.26: Describe what the size of the acceleration of an object indicates about the object's motion (how quickly the object's velocity will change). Give examples of objects having large accelerations (motorcycles starting from rest, vehicles stopping abruptly, cars negotiating sharp curves), and objects having small accelerations (tractor trailers starting from rest, large ships slowing down, and vehicles traveling on long gradual curves on highways).

 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

3.2.27: Conduct investigations to show that the acceleration due to gravity is the same for all objects near the surface of the earth. Use graphical analysis to determine the acceleration due to gravity from experimental data.

 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

3.2.28: Use algebraic relationships that relate the acceleration of an object to its speed and position to make predictions about the motion of objects as they move along straight and circular paths.

 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Uniform Circular Motion

3.2.31: Recognize that momentum of an object is a property of its motion that can be calculated from its mass and its velocity (P = mv), and that only forces can change the momentum of an object.

 2D Collisions
 Air Track
 Roller Coaster Physics

3.2.34: Recognize that momentum (like energy) is a conserved quantity, and describe how this property of momentum makes it a useful tool in problem solving, especially problems involving collisions.

 2D Collisions
 Air Track

3.2.35: Describe that forces transfer energy from one object to another through a process called "work". Explain how calculating the work done by a force helps us make qualitative and quantitative predictions regarding the motion of objects. Use mathematics, graphing calculators and/or graphing analysis programs to investigate the work done by individual forces.

 Pulley Lab

3.2.37: Describe how the concept of torque is used to explain (and calculate) the rotational effect that forces have when they act on objects.

 Torque and Moment of Inertia

3.2.38: Conduct investigations to identify the factors that determine the torque produced by a force (Torque = force ยท lever distance). (For example, what conditions must be met to ensure that the sum of all torques acting on an object is zero, leaving the object in rotational equilibrium?).

 Torque and Moment of Inertia

3.3: Energy readily transforms from one form to another, but these transformations are not always reversible. The details of these transformations depend upon the initial form of the energy and the properties of the materials involved. Energy may transfer into or out of a system and it may change forms, but the total energy cannot change.

3.3.2: Use diagrams to illustrate how the constructive and destructive interference of waves occurs.

 Ripple Tank
 Sound Beats and Sine Waves

3.3.3: Give specific examples of how wave interference occurs in earth systems for both mechanical waves and electromagnetic waves. For example, in the case of mechanical waves, demonstrate regions of high volume (constructive interference) and low volume "dead spots" (destructive interference) in the space surrounding two speakers. Or consider the effect that wave interference has on the impact of seismic waves produced by earthquakes. In the case of EM waves, observe the colored patterns (fringes) on a soap bubble or in a thin layer of oil on a puddle of water.

 Longitudinal Waves
 Ripple Tank
 Sound Beats and Sine Waves

3.3.4: Describe how wave interference is used to create useful devices, such as noise cancellation devices (mechanical waves), window coatings to selectively transmit or reflect IR waves, diffraction gratings for spectroscopy, and lasers (EM waves).

 Longitudinal Waves
 Sound Beats and Sine Waves

Correlation last revised: 1/20/2017

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.