### P: Physics

#### P.2: Newton's laws of motion and gravitation describe and predict the motion of a vast variety of objects. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.2.1: Explain Newton's first law: When the net force on an object is zero, no acceleration occurs, and thus a moving object continues to move at a constant speed in the same direction, or, if at rest, it remains at rest.

P.2.2: Explain that only when a net force is applied to an object will its motion change; that is, it will accelerate according to Newton's second law, F = ma.

P.2.3: Predict and explain how when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude but of opposite direction and force back on the first: F1 on 2 = -F2 on 1. (Newton's third law).

P.2.4: Explain that Newton's laws of motion are not universally applicable, but they provide very good approximations unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.

P.2.5: Explain that every object in the universe exerts an attractive force on every other object. Know the magnitude of the force is proportional to the product of the masses of the two objects and inversely proportional to the distance between them: F = G m1m2/r².

P.2.6: Investigate and explain how the Newtonian model - the three laws of motion plus the law of gravitation - makes it possible to account for such diverse phenomena as tides, the orbits of the planets and moons, the motion of falling objects, and Earth's equatorial bulge.

P.2.8: Demonstrate that a motion at constant speed in a circle requires a force that is always directed toward the center of the circle.

P.2.10: Apply the law F = ma to solve one-dimensional motion problems involving constant forces (Newton's second law).

P.2.11: Use and mathematically manipulate appropriate scalar and vector quantities (F, v, a, delta r, m, g) to solve kinematics and dynamics problems in one and two dimensions.

P.2.12: Solve problems in circular motion, using the formula for centripetal acceleration in the following form: a = v²/r.

P.2.13: Create and interpret graphs of speed versus time and the position and speed of an object undergoing constant acceleration.

#### P.3: The laws of conservation of energy and momentum provide independent approaches to predicting and describing the motion of objects. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.3.3: Describe how kinetic energy can be transformed into potential energy and vice versa (e.g., a bouncing ball).

P.3.4: Explain that momentum is a separately conserved quantity that is defined in one dimension as p = mv. Know the momentum of a system can be changed only by application of an external impulse, J = F delta t. Know the total momentum of a closed system cannot change, regardless of the interchange of momentum within it.

P.3.6: Identify the joule (J) as the SI unit for work and energy); the unit for power is the watt (W); and the unit for impulse and momentum is the kg·m/s.

P.3.7: Describe the conditions under which each conservation law applies.

P.3.8: Calculate kinetic energy using the formula K = ½mv²

P.3.9: Calculate changes in gravitational potential energy, U, due to elevation changes, delta h, near the Earth using the relation delta U = mg delta h.

P.3.10: Solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems such as that of falling objects.

P.3.11: Apply the law of conservation of mechanical energy to simple systems.

P.3.12: 1Calculate the momentum of an object as the product p = mv.

P.3.13: Solve problems involving perfectly inelastic collisions in one dimension using the principle of conservation of momentum.

P.3.14: Calculate the changes in motion of two bodies in one-dimensional elastic collisions in which both energy and momentum are conserved.

#### P.4: All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.4.1: Explain that the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid it has displaced.

P.4.4: Solve problems involving floating and sinking bodies using Archimedes' principle.

P.4.6: Solve problems involving a confined, isothermal gas using Boyle's law.

#### P.5: Energy cannot be created or destroyed; however, in many processes energy is transformed into the microscopic form called heat energy, that is, the energy of the disordered motion of atoms. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.5.1: Recognize that heat flow and work are two forms of energy transfer between a system and its surroundings.

P.5.4: Explain that thermal energy (commonly called heat) consists of random motion and the vibrations and rotations of atoms, molecules, or ions.

#### P.6: Waves carry energy from place to place without the transfer of matter. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.6.2: Observe and describe that a mechanical wave is a disturbance in a medium. For example, a sound wave in air is a slight variation in the pressure of the air surrounding a vibrating object, such as a bell.

P.6.3: Explain that waves conform to the superposition principle: Any number of waves can pass through the same point at the same time, and the amplitude, A, of the resulting wave at that point at any time is the sum of the amplitudes of the superposed waves. Use the principle of superposition to describe the interference effects arising from propagation of several waves through the same medium.

P.6.5: Explain that longitudinal waves can propagate in any medium, but transverse waves can propagate only in solids.

P.6.6: Describe that sound in a fluid medium is a longitudinal wave whose speed depends on the properties of the medium in which it propagates.

P.6.7: Differentiate electromagnetic waves from mechanical waves (i.e., Electromagnetic waves are not disturbances in a medium. Rather, such waves are a combination of a varying electric field and a varying magnetic field, each of which, in varying, gives rise to the other. Electromagnetic waves can therefore propagate in empty space.)

P.6.8: Know that radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves whose speed, c, in a vacuum is approximately 3x108 m/s (186,000 miles/second).

P.6.11: Explain that when a light ray passes from air into a transparent substance, such as glass, having index of refraction n, it is refracted through an angle given by Snell's law, n sin theta i = n sin theta r , where theta i is the angle of incidence of the ray and theta r is the angle of refraction.

P.6.12: Describe waves in terms of their fundamental characteristics of speed, v; wavelength, gamma; frequency, f; or period, T, and amplitude, A, and the relationships among them. For example, f gamma = v, f = 1/T. Solve problems involving wavelength, frequency, and wave speed.

P.6.13: Identify transverse and longitudinal waves in mechanical media such as springs, ropes, and the Earth (seismic waves).

P.6.14: Identify the phenomena of interference (beats), diffraction, refraction, the Doppler effect, and polarization, and that these are characteristic wave properties.

P.6.15: Use Snell's law to calculate refraction angles and analyze the properties of simple optical systems.

P.6.16: Identify electromagnetic radiation as a wave phenomenon after observing interference, diffraction, and polarization of such radiation.

#### P.7: The phenomena that fall into the categories known as electrostatics and electromagnetism are due respectively to the behavior of stationary and moving charged particles. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.7.1: Determine how an electric charge, q, exists in two kinds: positive (+) and negative (-). Know that like charges repel each other, and unlike charges attract each other with an electrostatic force whose magnitude is given by Coulomb's law, F = k q1q2/r12² , where k is a constant. Know the unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C).

P.7.4: Know that most materials fall into one of two categories: electrical conductors, through which electric charge can flow easily under the influence of an electric field, and electrical insulators (or dielectrics), through which charge cannot flow easily.

P.7.6: Give evidence that metals are almost all good electrical conductors, nevertheless they do offer some resistance (friction) to the flow of current. Know that the greater the potential difference between the ends of the conductor, the greater the current; the greater the resistance, the less the current. Know too, that for most metals and many other conductors, the current is determined by Ohm's law, V = IR. A conductor that conforms to this rule is called an ohmic conductor.

P.7.7: Explain that any resistive element in a dc circuit transforms electrical energy into thermal energy at a rate (power) given by Joule's law, P = IV, which in an ohmic element has the special form P = I²R = V²/R.

P.7.11: Demonstrate how changing magnetic fields produce electric fields (Faraday's law), thereby inducing currents in nearby conductors.

P.7.13: Investigate and explain how various wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum have many useful applications such as radio, television, microwave radars and ovens, cellular telephones, infrared detectors, optical cables, and X-ray machines.

P.7.17: Predict the current in simple direct current electric circuits constructed from batteries, wires, and resistors.

P.7.18: Solve problems involving Ohm's law in series and parallel circuits.

P.7.19: Determine the direction of a magnetic field produced by a current flowing in a straight wire and in a coil (use the right-hand rule).

P.7.20: Explain the operation of electric generators, motors, and transformers in terms of Ampère's law and Faraday's law.

#### P.8: Nuclear processes are those in which an atomic nucleus changes; they include radioactive decay of naturally occurring and man-made isotopes and nuclear fission and fusion processes. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.8.1: Explain the research of Marie Curie, later in collaboration with her husband, Pierre, spurred the study of radioactivity and led to the realization that one kind of atom may change into another kind, and so atoms must be made up of smaller parts. Rutherford, Geiger, and Marsden found these parts to be small, dense nuclei surrounded by much larger clouds of electrons.

P.8.2: Recognize that the nucleus, although it contains nearly all of the mass of the atom, occupies less of the atom than the proportion of the solar system occupied by the sun.

P.8.3: Explain how the mass of a neutron or a proton is about 2,000 times greater than the mass of an electron.

P.8.4: Describe Niels Bohr's model of the atom, its electron arrangement, and the correlation with the hydrogen spectrum.

P.8.5: Explain Albert Einstein's photoelectric effect.

P.8.10: Explain that if lighter atoms are fused to form atoms closer to iron, or heavier atoms are split to form atoms closer to iron, there is a mass loss. Explain that according to the principle of conservation of mass-energy, this mass loss must be accompanied by a release of energy according to Einstein's mass-energy equation. Know too, because c² is such a large number (is approx. equal to 9 x 10 to the 20th power m²/s²) a small mass loss leads to a large energy release.

Correlation last revised: 1/21/2017

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.