Standards for Teaching and Learning
C.2.1: Investigate and classify properties of matter, including density, melting point, boiling point, and solubility.
C.2.2: Determine the definitions of and use properties such as mass, volume, temperature, density, melting point, boiling point, conductivity, solubility, and color to differentiate between types of matter.
C.2.4: Distinguish between the three familiar states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of energy, particle motion, and phase transitions and describe what a plasma is.
C.2.6: Write equations that describe chemical changes and reactions.
C.3.1: Explain that strong acids (and bases) fully dissociate and weak acids (and bases) partially dissociate.
C.3.2: Define pH as the negative of the logarithm of the hydrogen (hydronium) ion concentration, and calculate pH from concentration data.
C.3.3: Illustrate and explain the pH scale to characterize acid and base solutions: Neutral solutions have pH 7, acids are less than 7, and bases are greater than 7.
C.3.5: Explain the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases: An acid donates hydrogen ions (hydronium) and a base donates hydroxide ions to a water solution.
C.4.1: Detail the development of atomic theory from the ancient Greeks to the present (Democritus, Dalton, Rutherford, Bohr, quantum theory).
C.4.3: Demonstrate and explain how chemical properties depend almost entirely on the configuration of the outer electron shell, which in turn depends on the proton number.
C.4.4: Explain the historical importance of the Bohr model of the atom.
C.4.6: Describe that spectral lines are the result of transitions of electrons between energy levels.
C.4.7: Describe that spectral lines correspond to photons with a frequency related to the energy spacing between levels by using Planck's formula (E = hv) in calculations.
C.5.1: Relate an element's position on the periodic table to its atomic number (number of protons).
C.5.2: Relate the position of an element in the periodic table and its reactivity with other elements to its quantum electron configuration.
C.5.3: Use the periodic table to compare trends in periodic properties, such as ionization energy, electronegativity, electron affinity, and relative size of atoms and ions.
C.5.4: Use an element's location in the periodic table to determine its number of valence electrons, and predict what stable ion or ions an element is likely to form in reacting with other specified elements.
C.6.3: Know many naturally occurring isotopes of elements are radioactive, as are isotopes formed in nuclear reactions.
C.6.6: Explain that the half-life of a radioactive element is the time it takes for the radioactive element to lose one-half its radioactivity and calculate the amount of radioactive substance remaining after an integral number of half-lives have passed.
C.7.2: Predict and explain how atoms combine to form molecules by sharing electrons to form covalent or metallic bonds, or by transferring electrons to form ionic bonds.
C.7.3: Recognize names and chemical formulas for simple molecular compounds (such as N2O3), ionic compounds, including those with polyatomic ions, simple organic compounds, and acids, including oxyacids (such as HClO4).
C.7.5: Demonstrate and explain that chemical bonds between identical atoms in molecules such as H2, O2, CH4, NH3, C2H4, N2, H2O, and many large biological molecules tend to be covalent; some of these molecules may have hydrogen bonds between them. In addition, molecules have other forms of intermolecular bonds, such as London dispersion forces and/or dipole bonding.
C.7.6: Explain that in solids, particles can only vibrate around fixed positions, but in liquids, they can slide randomly past one another, and in gases, they are free to move between collisions with one another.
C.7.7: Draw Lewis dot structures for atoms, molecules and polyatomic ions.
C.8.2: Describe chemical reactions by writing balanced chemical equations and balancing redox equations.
C.8.3: Classify reactions of various types such as single and double replacement, synthesis, decomposition, and acid/base neutralization.
C.8.4: Calculate the masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction from the mass of one of the reactants or products and the relevant atomic or molecular masses).
C.8.6: Determine molar mass of a molecule given its chemical formula and a table of atomic masses.
C.8.7: Convert the mass of a molecular substance to moles, number of particles, or volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure.
C.8.11: Describe the effect of changes in reactant concentration, changes in temperature, the surface area of solids, and the presence of catalysts on reaction rates.[
C.9.1: Explain the kinetic molecular theory and use it to explain changes in gas volumes, pressure, and temperature.
C.9.2: Apply the relationship between pressure and volume at constant temperature (Boyle's law, pV = constant at constant temperature and number of moles), and between volume and temperature (Charles' law or Gay-Lussac's law, V/T = constant at constant pressure and number of moles) and the relationship between pressure and temperature that follows from them.
C.9.3: Solve problems using the Ideal Gas law, pV = nRT, and the combined gas law, p1V1/T1= p2V2/T2.
C.9.5: Apply Graham's Law of Diffusion.
C.10.2: Describe the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction (temperature, concentration) and the factors that can cause a shift in equilibrium (concentration, pressure, volume, temperature).
C.10.3: Explain why rates of reaction are dependent on the frequency of collision, energy of collisions, and orientation of colliding molecules.
C.10.4: Observe and describe the role of activation energy and catalysts in a chemical reaction.
C.10.5: Use LeChâtelier's principle to predict the effect of changes in concentration, temperature, volume, and pressure on a system at equilibrium.
C.10.6: Write the equilibrium expression for a given reaction and calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction from given concentration data.
C.11.6: Calculate the theoretical freezing-point depression and boiling-point elevation of an ideal solution as a function of solute concentration.
C.11.8: Use titration data to calculate the concentration of an unknown solution.
C.12.1: Describe the concepts of temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion and energy of molecules (or atoms).
C.12.3: Explain how energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts.
C.12.4: Solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes, using given values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change.
Correlation last revised: 1/21/2017