C: Chemistry

C.2: Physical and chemical properties can be used to classify and describe matter. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.2.1: Investigate and classify properties of matter, including density, melting point, boiling point, and solubility.

Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
Density Laboratory

C.2.2: Determine the definitions of and use properties such as mass, volume, temperature, density, melting point, boiling point, conductivity, solubility, and color to differentiate between types of matter.

Circuit Builder
Density Experiment: Slice and Dice
Density Laboratory

C.2.4: Distinguish between the three familiar states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of energy, particle motion, and phase transitions and describe what a plasma is.

Phase Changes

C.2.6: Write equations that describe chemical changes and reactions.

Chemical Equations
Equilibrium and Concentration

C.3: Acids, bases, and salts are three classes of compounds that form ions in water solutions. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.3.1: Explain that strong acids (and bases) fully dissociate and weak acids (and bases) partially dissociate.

Titration

C.3.2: Define pH as the negative of the logarithm of the hydrogen (hydronium) ion concentration, and calculate pH from concentration data.

Titration
pH Analysis

C.3.3: Illustrate and explain the pH scale to characterize acid and base solutions: Neutral solutions have pH 7, acids are less than 7, and bases are greater than 7.

pH Analysis
pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

C.3.5: Explain the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases: An acid donates hydrogen ions (hydronium) and a base donates hydroxide ions to a water solution.

pH Analysis
pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

C.4: An atom is a discrete unit. The atomic model can help us to understand the interaction of elements and compounds observed on a macroscopic scale. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.4.1: Detail the development of atomic theory from the ancient Greeks to the present (Democritus, Dalton, Rutherford, Bohr, quantum theory).

Bohr Model of Hydrogen
Bohr Model: Introduction

C.4.3: Demonstrate and explain how chemical properties depend almost entirely on the configuration of the outer electron shell, which in turn depends on the proton number.

Electron Configuration

C.4.4: Explain the historical importance of the Bohr model of the atom.

Bohr Model of Hydrogen
Bohr Model: Introduction
Element Builder

C.4.6: Describe that spectral lines are the result of transitions of electrons between energy levels.

Bohr Model of Hydrogen
Bohr Model: Introduction
Star Spectra

C.4.7: Describe that spectral lines correspond to photons with a frequency related to the energy spacing between levels by using Planck's formula (E = hv) in calculations.

Bohr Model of Hydrogen
Bohr Model: Introduction
Photoelectric Effect
Star Spectra

C.5: Periodicity of physical and chemical properties relates to atomic structure and led to the development of the periodic table. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.5.1: Relate an element's position on the periodic table to its atomic number (number of protons).

Element Builder

C.5.2: Relate the position of an element in the periodic table and its reactivity with other elements to its quantum electron configuration.

Electron Configuration

C.5.3: Use the periodic table to compare trends in periodic properties, such as ionization energy, electronegativity, electron affinity, and relative size of atoms and ions.

Electron Configuration

C.5.4: Use an element's location in the periodic table to determine its number of valence electrons, and predict what stable ion or ions an element is likely to form in reacting with other specified elements.

Electron Configuration

C.6: Nuclear processes are those in which an atomic nucleus changes; they include radioactive decay of naturally occurring and man-made isotopes and nuclear fission and fusion processes. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.6.3: Know many naturally occurring isotopes of elements are radioactive, as are isotopes formed in nuclear reactions.

Nuclear Decay

C.6.6: Explain that the half-life of a radioactive element is the time it takes for the radioactive element to lose one-half its radioactivity and calculate the amount of radioactive substance remaining after an integral number of half-lives have passed.

Half-life

C.7: The enormous variety of physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter depends upon the ability of atoms to form bonds. This ability results from the electrostatic forces between electrons and protons and between atoms and molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.7.2: Predict and explain how atoms combine to form molecules by sharing electrons to form covalent or metallic bonds, or by transferring electrons to form ionic bonds.

Covalent Bonds
Ionic Bonds

C.7.3: Recognize names and chemical formulas for simple molecular compounds (such as N2O3), ionic compounds, including those with polyatomic ions, simple organic compounds, and acids, including oxyacids (such as HClO4).

Chemical Equations
Covalent Bonds
Ionic Bonds

C.7.5: Demonstrate and explain that chemical bonds between identical atoms in molecules such as H2, O2, CH4, NH3, C2H4, N2, H2O, and many large biological molecules tend to be covalent; some of these molecules may have hydrogen bonds between them. In addition, molecules have other forms of intermolecular bonds, such as London dispersion forces and/or dipole bonding.

Covalent Bonds
Ionic Bonds

C.7.6: Explain that in solids, particles can only vibrate around fixed positions, but in liquids, they can slide randomly past one another, and in gases, they are free to move between collisions with one another.

Temperature and Particle Motion

C.7.7: Draw Lewis dot structures for atoms, molecules and polyatomic ions.

Covalent Bonds
Element Builder
Ionic Bonds

C.8: The microscopic conservation of atoms in chemical reactions implies the macroscopic principle of conservation of matter and the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.8.2: Describe chemical reactions by writing balanced chemical equations and balancing redox equations.

Balancing Chemical Equations
Chemical Equations

C.8.3: Classify reactions of various types such as single and double replacement, synthesis, decomposition, and acid/base neutralization.

Balancing Chemical Equations
Chemical Equations
Dehydration Synthesis
Equilibrium and Concentration
Titration

C.8.4: Calculate the masses of reactants and products in a chemical reaction from the mass of one of the reactants or products and the relevant atomic or molecular masses).

Chemical Equations
Stoichiometry

C.8.6: Determine molar mass of a molecule given its chemical formula and a table of atomic masses.

Stoichiometry

C.8.7: Convert the mass of a molecular substance to moles, number of particles, or volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure.

Chemical Equations

C.8.11: Describe the effect of changes in reactant concentration, changes in temperature, the surface area of solids, and the presence of catalysts on reaction rates.[

Collision Theory

C.9: The behavior of gases can be explained by the kinetic molecular theory. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.9.1: Explain the kinetic molecular theory and use it to explain changes in gas volumes, pressure, and temperature.

Temperature and Particle Motion

C.9.2: Apply the relationship between pressure and volume at constant temperature (Boyle's law, pV = constant at constant temperature and number of moles), and between volume and temperature (Charles' law or Gay-Lussac's law, V/T = constant at constant pressure and number of moles) and the relationship between pressure and temperature that follows from them.

Boyle's Law and Charles' Law

C.9.3: Solve problems using the Ideal Gas law, pV = nRT, and the combined gas law, p1V1/T1= p2V2/T2.

Boyle's Law and Charles' Law

C.9.5: Apply Graham's Law of Diffusion.

Diffusion

C.10: Broad Concept: Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process at the molecular level. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.10.2: Describe the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction (temperature, concentration) and the factors that can cause a shift in equilibrium (concentration, pressure, volume, temperature).

Collision Theory
Equilibrium and Concentration
Equilibrium and Pressure

C.10.3: Explain why rates of reaction are dependent on the frequency of collision, energy of collisions, and orientation of colliding molecules.

Collision Theory

C.10.4: Observe and describe the role of activation energy and catalysts in a chemical reaction.

Collision Theory

C.10.5: Use LeCh√Ętelier's principle to predict the effect of changes in concentration, temperature, volume, and pressure on a system at equilibrium.

Equilibrium and Concentration
Equilibrium and Pressure

C.10.6: Write the equilibrium expression for a given reaction and calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction from given concentration data.

Equilibrium and Concentration

C.11: Solutions are mixtures of two or more substances that are homogeneous on the molecular level. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.11.6: Calculate the theoretical freezing-point depression and boiling-point elevation of an ideal solution as a function of solute concentration.

Freezing Point of Salt Water

C.11.8: Use titration data to calculate the concentration of an unknown solution.

Titration

C.12: Energy is exchanged or transformed in all chemical reactions and physical changes of matter. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.12.1: Describe the concepts of temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion and energy of molecules (or atoms).

Temperature and Particle Motion

C.12.3: Explain how energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts.

Phase Changes

C.12.4: Solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes, using given values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change.

Calorimetry Lab
Energy Conversion in a System
Phase Changes

Correlation last revised: 1/21/2017

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