Standards for Teaching and Learning
B.2.1: Using simplified Bohr diagrams, describe basic atomic structure in order to understand the basis of chemical bonding in covalent and ionic bonds.
B.2.2: Describe the structure and unique properties of water and its importance to living things.
B.2.3: Describe the central role of carbon in the chemistry of living things because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements.
B.2.5: Know that living things have many different kinds of molecules, including small ones such as water, medium-sized ones such as sugars, amino acids, and nucleotides, and large ones such as starches, proteins, and DNA.
B.2.6: Observe and explain the role of enzymatic catalysis in biochemical processes.
B.2.7: Explain the hierarchical organization of living things from least complex to most complex (subatomic, atomic, molecular, cellular, tissue, organs, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere).
B.3.2: Understand the function of cellular organelles and how the organelles work together in cellular activities (e.g., enzyme secretion from the pancreas).
B.3.3: Observe and describe that within the cell are specialized parts for the transport of materials, energy capture and release, waste disposal, and motion of the whole cell or of its parts.
B.3.4: Describe the organelles that plant and animal cells have in common (e.g., ribosomes, golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum) and some that differ (e.g., only plant cells have chloroplasts and cell walls).
B.3.5: Demonstrate and explain that cell membranes act as highly selective permeable barriers to penetration of substances by diffusion or active transport.
B.3.6: Explain that some structures in the eukaryotic cell, such as mitochondria, and in plants, chloroplasts, have apparently evolved by endosymbiosis (one organism living inside another, to the advantage of both) with early prokaryotes.
B.3.8: Demonstrate that most cells function best within a narrow range of temperature and pH; extreme changes usually harm cells, by modifying the structure of their macromolecules and, therefore, some of their functions.
B.3.9: Explain that a complex network of proteins provides organization and shape to cells.
B.3.10: Explain that complex interactions among the different kinds of molecules in the cell cause distinct cycles of activities, such as growth and division.
B.3.12: Explain how cell activity in a multicellular plant or animal can be affected by molecules from other parts of the organism.
B.3.13: Explain why communication and/or interaction are required between cells to coordinate their diverse activities.
B.3.14: Recognize and describe that cellular respiration is important for the production of ATP, which is the basic energy source for cell metabolism.
B.3.15: Differentiate between the functions of mitosis and meiosis: Mitosis is a process by which a cell divides into each of two daughter cells, each of which has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell. Meiosis is a process of cell division in organisms that reproduce sexually, during which the nucleus divides eventually into four nuclei, each of which contains half the usual number of chromosomes.
B.3.17: Describe that all organisms begin their life cycles as a single cell, and in multicellular organisms the products of mitosis of the original zygote form the embryonic body.
B.4.1: Research and explain the genetic basis for Gregor Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment.
B.4.3: Explain how hereditary information is passed from parents to offspring in the form of "genes" which are long stretches of DNA consisting of sequences of nucleotides. Explain that in eukaryotes, the genes are contained in chromosomes, which are bodies made up of DNA and various proteins.
B.4.5: Explain the flow of information is usually from DNA to RNA, and then to protein.
B.4.7: Understand that and describe how inserting, deleting, or substituting short stretches of DNA alters a gene. Recognize that changes (mutations) in the DNA sequence in or near a specific gene may (or may not) affect the sequence of amino acids in the encoded protein or the expression of the gene.
B.4.8: Explain the mechanisms of genetic mutations and chromosomal recombinations, and when and how they are passed on to offspring.
B.4.10: Explain how the sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction result in a vast variety of potential allele combinations in the offspring of any two parents.
B.4.11: Explain that genetic variation can occur from such processes as crossing over, jumping genes, and deletion and duplication of genes.
B.4.12: Explain how the actions of genes, patterns of inheritance, and the reproduction of cells and organisms account for the continuity of life.
B.5.1: Investigate and explain how molecular evidence reinforces and confirms the fossil, anatomical, and other evidence for evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched off from one another.
B.5.2: Explain how a large diversity of species increases the chance that at least some living things will survive in the face of large or even catastrophic changes in the environment.
B.5.3: Research and explain how natural selection provides a mechanism for evolution and leads to organisms that are optimally suited for survival in particular environments.
B.5.4: Explain that biological diversity, episodic speciation, and mass extinction are depicted in the fossil record, comparative anatomy, and other evidence.
B.5.5: Describe how life on Earth is thought to have begun as one or a few simple one-celled organisms about 3.5 billion years ago, and that during the first 2 billion years, only single-cell microorganisms existed. Know that, once cells with nuclei developed about a billion years ago, increasingly complex multicellular organisms could evolve.
B.5.6: Explain that prior to the theory first offered by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace, the universal belief was that all known species had been created de novo at about the same time and had remained unchanged.
B.5.7: Research and explain that Darwin argued that only biologically inherited characteristics could be passed on to offspring, some of these characteristics would be different from the average and advantageous in surviving and reproducing, and over generations, accumulation of these inherited advantages would lead to a new species.
B.5.8: Explain Gregor Mendel's identification of what we now call "genes" and how they are sorted in reproduction led to an understanding of the mechanism of heredity. Understand how the integration of his concept of heredity and the concept of natural selection has led to the modern model of speciation and evolution.
B.5.10: Explain that evolution builds on what already exists, so the more variety there is, the more there can be in the future.
B.6.1: Describe the structure and function of roots, leaves, flowers, and stems of plants.
B.6.3: Know that about 250,000 species of flowering plants have been identified.
B.6.4: Explain the photosynthesis process: Plants make food in their leaves and chlorophyll found in the leaves can make food the plant can use from carbon dioxide, water, nutrients, and energy from sunlight.
B.6.5: Explain that during the process of photosynthesis, plants release oxygen into the air.
B.6.6: Describe that plants have broad patterns of behavior that have evolved to ensure reproductive success, including co-evolution with animals that distribute a plant's pollen and seeds.
B.6.7: Recognize that plants have a greater problem with "unpredictable environments" because they cannot seek shelter as many animals can.
B.7.1: Explain the major systems of the mammalian body (digestive, respiratory, reproductive, circulatory, excretory, nervous, endocrine, integumentary, immune, skeletal, and muscular) and how they interact with each other.
B.7.2: Analyze the complementary activity of major body systems, such as how the respiratory and circulatory systems provide cells with oxygen and nutrients, and remove toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide.
B.8.1: Illustrate and describe the cycles of biotic and abiotic factors (matter, nutrients, energy) in an ecosystem.
B.8.2: Describe how factors in an ecosystem, such as the availability of energy, water, oxygen, and minerals and the ability to recycle the residue of dead organic materials, cause fluctuations in population sizes.
B.8.3: Explore and explain how changes in population size have an impact on the ecological balance of a community and how to analyze the effects.
B.8.4: Describe how the physical or chemical environment may influence the rate, extent, and nature of the way organisms develop within ecosystems.
B.8.5: Describe how ecosystems can be reasonably stable over hundreds or thousands of years.
B.8.6: Explain that ecosystems tend to have cyclic fluctuations around a state of rough equilibrium, and change results from shifts in climate, natural causes, human activity, or when a new species or non-native species appears.
B.8.7: Explain how layers of energy-rich organic material, mostly of plant origin, have been gradually turned into great coal beds and oil pools by the pressure of the overlying Earth and its internal heat.
B.8.9: Investigate and describe how point and non-point source pollution can affect the health of a bay's watershed and wetlands.
B.8.10: Assess the method for monitoring and safeguarding water quality, including local waterways such as the Anacostia and Potomac rivers, and know that macro-invertebrates can be early warning signs of decreasing water quality.
Correlation last revised: 1/21/2017