Grade Level Expectations
6.1.3: Explain how organelles of single-celled organisms function as a system to perform the same basic life processes as are performed in multi-cellular organisms (e.g., acquisition of energy, elimination of waste, reproduction, gas exchange, growth, repair, and protein synthesis).
6.1.5: Show how water moves in and out of cells down a concentration gradient. Recognize that this process, known as osmosis, requires no input of energy.
6.1.6: Explain the role of cell membranes as highly selective barriers (e.g., diffusion, osmosis, active transport).
6.1.7: Distinguish between active and passive transport. Recognize that active transport requires energy input to move molecules from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration (against the concentration gradient).
6.1.11: Explain how the cells of a multi-cellular organisms work together for the benefit of the colonial or singular organism.
6.2.3: Explain that physically breaking down food into smaller pieces by mechanical digestion helps facilitate breakdown (by increasing surface area) into chemical components and that digestive enzymes are necessary for the breakdown of food into those chemical components (e.g., starch to glucose, lipids and glycerol to fatty acids, proteins to amino acids).
6.2.6: Explain the processes used by autotrophs to transform light energy into chemical energy in the form of simple sugars. Give examples of how these compounds are used by living things as sources of matter and energy.
6.2.7: Describe the process by which water is removed from sugar molecules (dehydration synthesis) to form carbohydrates and is added to break them down (hydrolysis).
6.2.8: Describe photosynthesis as an energy storing process and explain how environmental factors such as temperature, light intensity, and the amount of water available can affect photosynthesis.
6.2.9: Identify the reactants and the products in equations that represent photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Explain how the equations demonstrate the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy in terms of balanced equations.
6.2.10: Investigate and describe the complementary relationship (cycling of matter and the flow of energy) between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
6.2.11: Recognize that during photosynthesis, plants use energy from the sun and elements from the atmosphere and the soil to make specific compounds. Recognize that these compounds are used by living things as sources of matter and energy.
6.2.13: Recognize that during cellular respiration, chemical bonds between food molecules are broken (hydrolysis), and energy is transferred to ADP to create ATP (the energy storage molecule that fuels cellular processes). Acknowledge that all organisms must break the high energy chemical bonds in food molecules during cellular respiration to obtain the energy needed for life processes.
6.2.14: Recognize that in general, synthesis reactions (i.e. photosynthesis) require energy while decomposition reactions (i.e. cellular respiration) usually release energy.
6.2.17: Investigate how various factors (temperature, pH, enzyme/substrate concentration) affect the rate of enzyme activity.
6.3.2: Draw a schematic to illustrate a positive and negative feedback mechanism that regulates body systems in order to help maintain homeostasis.
6.4.4: Describe how environmental factors (e.g., UV light or the presence of carcinogens or pathogens) alter cellular functions.
7.1.1: Describe the relationship between DNA, genes, chromosomes and proteins.
7.1.2: Explain that a gene is a section of DNA that directs the synthesis of a specific protein associated with a specific trait in an organism.
7.1.3: Trace how a DNA sequence, through transcription and translation, results in a sequence of amino acids.
7.1.4: Demonstrate that when DNA replicates, the complementary strands separate and the old strands serve as a template for the new complementary strands. Recognize that this results in two identical strands of DNA that are exact copies of the original.
7.1.5: Illustrate how a sequence of DNA nucleotides codes for a specific sequence of amino acids.
7.1.6: Use Punnett squares, including dihybrid crosses, and pedigree charts to determine probabilities and patterns of inheritance (i.e. dominant/recessive, co-dominance, sex-linkage, multi-allele inheritance).
7.1.7: Analyze a karyotype to determine chromosome numbers and pairs. Compare and contrast normal and abnormal karyotypes.
7.1.9: Describe how exposure to radiation, chemicals and pathogens can increase mutations.
7.1.10: Explain that mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene. Recognize that mutations may be harmful, beneficial, or have no impact on the survival of the organism.
7.1.13: Describe the cell cycle as an orderly process that results in new somatic cells that contain an exact copy of the DNA that make up the genes and chromosomes found in the parent somatic cells.
7.2.2: Analyze natural selection simulations and use data generated from them to describe how environmentally-favored traits are perpetuated over generations resulting in species survival, while less favorable traits decrease in frequency or may lead to extinction.
7.2.6: Discuss how environmental pressure, genetic drift, mutation and competition for resources influence the evolutionary process. Recognize that a change in a species over time does not follow a set pattern or timeline.
7.2.7: Compare and contrast the role of sexual selection to the role of natural selection on the evolutionary process.
7.2.8: Relate a population's survival to the reproductive success of adapted individuals in that population.
7.2.9: Explain the roles of geographical isolation and natural selection on the evolution of new species.
7.2.11: Explain why homogeneous populations may be more vulnerable to environmental changes than heterogeneous populations.
7.2.12: Explain how evolutionary relationships between species are used to group organisms together.
7.3.5: Explain how developments in technology (e.g., gel electrophoresis) have been used to identify individuals based on DNA as well as to improve the ability to diagnose genetic diseases.
Correlation last revised: 1/20/2017