B: Biology

B.1: Cell Biology

B.1.1: The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism's cells.

B.1.1.1: Cells are enclosed within semi-permeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.

 Cell Structure

B.1.1.3: Prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.

 Cell Structure
 Paramecium Homeostasis

B.1.1.4: The central dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of information from transcription of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus to translation of proteins on ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B.1.1.6: Usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.

 Cell Energy Cycle

B.1.1.8: Most macromolecules (polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids) in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursors.

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B.2: Genetics

B.2.1: Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population.

B.2.1.5: Approximately half of an individual's DNA sequence comes from each parent.

 DNA Analysis

B.2.1.6: Genes on specific chromosomes determine an individual's sex.

 Human Karyotyping

B.2.1.7: Possible combinations of alleles in a zygote can be predicted from the genetic makeup of the parents.

 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

B.2.2: A multicellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its phenotype depends on its genotype, which is established at fertilization.

B.2.2.1: The probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross can be predicted from the genotypes of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or X-linked, dominant or recessive).

 Chicken Genetics
 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

B.2.2.2: Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment are the basis of genetics.

 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

B.2.3: Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism.

B.2.3.1: Ribosomes synthesize proteins, using tRNAs to translate genetic information in the mRNA.

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B.2.3.3: Mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein.

 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

B.2.3.5: Proteins can differ from one another in the number and sequence of amino acids.

 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B.2.4: The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells.

B.2.4.1: Base-pairing rules are used to explain the precise copying of DNA during semi-conservative replication and transcription of information from DNA into mRNA.

 Building DNA
 RNA and Protein Synthesis

B.3: Ecology

B.3.1: Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects.

B.3.1.1: Biodiversity is the sum total of different kinds of organisms and is affected by alterations of habitats.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors

B.3.1.2: Changes in an ecosystem can result from changes in climate, human activity, introduction of nonnative species, or changes in population size.

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
 Pond Ecosystem

B.3.1.5: A vital part of an ecosystem is the stability of its producers and decomposers.

 Forest Ecosystem

B.4: Evolution

B.4.1: The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable or unstable over time.

B.4.1.1: Natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism.


B.4.1.2: Alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in a gene pool.

 Mouse Genetics (One Trait)
 Mouse Genetics (Two Traits)

B.4.2: Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments.

B.4.2.1: Natural selection determines the differential survival of groups of organisms.

 Evolution: Mutation and Selection
 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection
 Natural Selection
 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

B.4.2.2: A great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms survive major changes in the environment.

 Rainfall and Bird Beaks

B.4.2.5: Fossil evidence contributes to our understanding of biological diversity, episodic speciation and mass extinction.

 Human Evolution - Skull Analysis

B.5: Physiology

B.5.1: As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the internal environment of the human body remains relatively stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the outside environment.

B.5.1.3: Feedback loops in the nervous and endocrine systems regulate conditions in the body.

 Human Homeostasis

B.5.1.6: Digestion includes the secretion of stomach acid, digestive enzymes (amylases, proteases, nucleases, lipases) and bile salts into the digestion system.

 Digestive System

B.5.2: Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat disease.

B.5.2.4: There are important differences between bacteria and viruses with respect to their requirements for growth and replication, the body's primary defenses against bacterial and viral infections, and effective treatments of these infections.

 Virus Lytic Cycle

Correlation last revised: 3/1/2018

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