Grade Level Expectations
2.1.1: Explain that matter is composed of tiny particles called atoms that are unique to each element, and that atoms are composed of subatomic particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons.
2.1.2: Describe the relative charge, approximate mass, and location of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom.
2.1.6: Describe isotopes of elements in terms of protons, neutrons, electrons, and average atomic masses. Recognize that isotopes of the same element have essentially the same chemical properties that are determined by the proton and electron number.
2.1.7: Use the Periodic Table to identify an element's atomic number, valence electron number, atomic mass, group/family and be able to classify the element as a metal, non-metal or metalloid.
2.1.8: Determine the physical and chemical properties of an element based on its location on the Periodic Table.
2.1.9: Investigate differences between the properties of various elements in order to predict the element's location on the Periodic Table.
2.1.10: Use the Periodic Table to predict the types of chemical bonds (e.g., ionic or covalent) in a variety of compounds.
2.1.11: Use models or drawings to illustrate how molecules are formed when two or more atoms are held together in covalent bonds by "sharing" electrons. Use models or drawings to illustrate how ionic compounds are formed when two or more atoms "transfer" electrons and are held together in ionic bonds.
2.1.12: Explain how an atom's electron arrangement influences its ability to transfer or share electrons and is related its position on the periodic table. Recognize that an atom in which the positive and negative charges do not balance is an ion.
2.1.13: Recognize that metals have the physical properties of conductivity, malleability, luster, and ductility.
2.1.16: Conduct investigations to determine the effect of heat energy on the change of state (change of phase) of water. Sketch and interpret graphs representing the melting, freezing, evaporation and condensation of water.
2.1.18: Apply the kinetic molecular theory to explain that a change in the energy of the particles may result in a temperature change or a change of phase (change in state).
2.2.4: Describe how the process of diffusion or the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration (down the concentration gradient) occurs because of molecular collisions.
2.2.6: Measure the pH of a solution using chemical indicators to determine the relative acidity or alkalinity of the solution. Identify the physical properties of acids and bases.
2.2.7: Investigate factors that affect the materials' solubility in water and construct solubility curves to compare the extent to which the materials dissolve.
2.3.1: Conduct and explain the results of simple investigations to demonstrate that the total mass of a substance is conserved during both physical and chemical changes.
2.4.2: Balance simple chemical equations and explain how these balanced chemical equations represent the conservation of matter.
3.1.2: Use diagrams to illustrate the similarities shared by all electromagnetic waves and differences between them. Show how wavelength is used to distinguish the different groups of EM waves (radio waves, microwaves, IR, visible and UV waves, X-rays, and gamma waves).
3.1.3: Conduct investigations involving moving objects to examine the influence that the mass and the speed have on the kinetic energy of the object. Collect and graph data that supports that the kinetic energy depends linearly upon the mass, but nonlinearly upon the speed. Recognize that the kinetic energy of an object depends on the square of its speed, and that KE =½ mv2.
3.1.4: Collect and graph data that shows that the potential energy of an object increases linearly with the weight of an object (mg) and with its height above a pre-defined reference level, h. (GPE = mgh).
3.1.6: Recognize that the energy stored in a stretched elastic material is proportional to the square of the stretch of the material, and a constant that reflects the elasticity of the material. (Elastic PE = ½ kx2)
3.1.7: Explain that heat energy represents the total random kinetic energy of molecules of a substance.
3.2.3: Use diagrams or models to explain how mechanical waves can transport energy without transporting matter.
3.2.5: Recognize that the gravitational force is a universal force of attraction that acts between masses, but this force is only significant when one (or both) of the objects is massive (for example, a star, planet or moon).
3.2.8: Recognize that on Earth, the object would have to be moved several hundred miles above the surface before the decrease in the force of gravity would become detectable.
3.2.11: Describe the role that forces play when energy is transferred between interacting objects and explain how the amount of energy transferred can be calculated from measurable quantities.
3.2.12: Give examples of common forces transferring energy to (or away from) objects. For example; a pulling force can transfer energy to an object (when the object is pulled along a floor), a pushing force can transfer energy away from an object (to slow its motion), and friction and air resistance always transfer kinetic energy away from moving objects.
3.2.13: Identify that "work" is the process by which a force transfers energy to an object, and use measured quantities to make calculations of the work done by forces (W = energy transferred = F·D).
3.2.16: Use models and diagrams to illustrate the structure of the atom. Include information regarding the distribution of electric charge and mass in the atom. Identify the forces that are responsible for the stability of the atom, and which parts of the atom exert and feel these forces.
3.3.1: Describe why it is significant that energy cannot be created (made) nor destroyed (consumed), and identify that that this property of energy is referred to as the Law of the Conservation of Energy.
3.3.2: Give examples that illustrate the transfer of energy from one object (or substance) to another, and examples of energy being transformed from one to another.
3.3.3: Use energy chains to trace the flow of energy through physical systems. Indicate the source of the energy in each example, and trace the energy until it leaves the system or adopts a form in the system that neither changes nor is transferred. Make qualitative estimates of all the forms of the energy involved and reflect on the consequences of the energy transfers and transformations that take place. For example, trace the flow of the radiant energy carried by sunlight that strikes the roof of a home. Reflect on how the color of the roof (light vs. dark) will have an impact on the ability to heat and cool the house, and possibly the functional lifetime of the roofing materials themselves.
3.3.5: Explain that what happens to electromagnetic waves that strike a substance (reflection, transmission, absorption) depends on the wavelength of the waves and the physical properties of the substance.
3.3.6: Investigate how radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible waves and ultraviolet waves behave when they strike different substances.
3.3.9: Use energy chains to trace the flow of energy in a selective absorption process (e.g., sunburn, Greenhouse Effect, microwave cooking).
3.3.11: Explain that through the action of resistive forces (friction and air resistance) mechanical energy is transformed into heat energy, and because of the random nature of heat energy, transforming all of the heat energy back into mechanical energy (or any other organized form of energy) is impossible. Give examples where organized forms of energy (GPE, elastic PE, the KE of large objects) are transformed into heat energy but the reverse transformations are not possible.
3.3.12: Reflect on why organized forms of energy are more useful than disorganized forms (heat energy).
5.1.2: Identify a few of the most common elements in the Earth's crust, oceans, and atmosphere and confirm their location on the periodic table. (Example: Si, O, C, N, H, Al). Compare the relative abundance of elements found in the Earth's crust, oceans, and atmosphere. Trace carbon as it cycles through the crust, ocean, and atmosphere.
5.1.3: Classify and describe features that are used to distinguish between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
5.1.7: Investigate the densities, composition, and relative age of continental (felsic) and oceanic (mafic) rocks. Explain why the continental crust, although thicker in most places, overlies oceanic crust. Use this information to explain why oceanic crust sub ducts below continental crust in convergent plate boundaries and explain the configuration of land masses and ocean basins.
5.2.2: Identify volcanic products (lava, mudflow, pyroclastic projectiles, ash, gases) associated with various types of volcanoes and their eruptions. Describe the effect of these products on life and property. Explain how the products of volcanic activity influence both long-term and short-term changes in the Earth system.
5.2.4: Describe how earthquake energy is represented on seismograms and describe how these waves can be used to determine the origin and intensity of earthquakes.
5.2.5: Use models or computer simulations to demonstrate the processes and origin of landforms at diverging, converging and transform plate boundaries. Show on a map how plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanoes are spatially related.
5.2.7: Research and describe evidence that supports the Theory of Plate Tectonics to include rock magnetism and the age of the sea floor.
Correlation last revised: 5/9/2018