### P2: The universe is in a state of constant change. From small particles (electrons) to the large systems (galaxies) all things are in motion. Therefore, for students to understand the universe they must describe and represent various types of motion. Kinematics, the description of motion, always involves measurements of position and time. Students must describe the relationships between these quantities using mathematical statements, graphs, and motion maps. They use these representations as powerful tools to not only describe past motions but also predict future events.

#### P2.1: An object's position can be measured and graphed as a function of time. An object's speed can be calculated and graphed as a function of time.

P2.1.A: Calculate the average speed of an object using the change of position and elapsed time.

P2.1.B: Represent the velocities for linear and circular motion using motion diagrams (arrows on strobe pictures).

P2.1.C: Create line graphs using measured values of position and elapsed time.

P2.1.D: Describe and analyze the motion that a position-time graph represents, given the graph.

P2.1.E: Describe and classify various motions in a plane as one dimensional, two dimensional, circular, or periodic.

P2.1.F: Distinguish between rotation and revolution and describe and contrast the two speeds of an object like the Earth.

P2.1.g: Solve problems involving average speed and constant acceleration in one dimension.

P2.1.h: Identify the changes in speed and direction in everyday examples of circular (rotation and revolution), periodic, and projectile motions.

#### P2.2: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.

P2.2.A: Distinguish between the variables of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.

P2.2.B: Use the change of speed and elapsed time to calculate the average acceleration for linear motion.

P2.2.C: Describe and analyze the motion that a velocity-time graph represents, given the graph.

P2.2.D: State that uniform circular motion involves acceleration without a change in speed.

P2.2.e: Use the area under a velocity-time graph to calculate the distance traveled and the slope to calculate the acceleration.

P2.2.g: Apply the independence of the vertical and horizontal initial velocities to solve projectile motion problems.

### P3: Students identify interactions between objects either as being by direct contact (e.g., pushes or pulls, friction) or at a distance (e.g., gravity, electromagnetism), and to use forces to describe interactions between objects. They recognize that non-zero net forces always cause changes in motion (Newton's first law). These changes can be changes in speed, direction, or both. Students use Newton's second law to summarize relationships among and solve problems involving net forces, masses, and changes in motion (using standard metric units). They explain that whenever one object exerts a force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted back on it (Newton's third law).

#### P3.1: Objects can interact with each other by "direct contact" (e.g., pushes or pulls, friction) or at a distance (e.g., gravity, electromagnetism, nuclear).

P3.1.A: Identify the force(s) acting between objects in "direct contact" or at a distance.

P3.1.c: Provide examples that illustrate the importance of the electric force in everyday life.

#### P3.2: Forces have magnitude and direction. The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object. Objects change their speed and/or direction only when a net force is applied. If the net force on an object is zero, there is no change in motion (Newton's First Law).

P3.2.A: Identify the magnitude and direction of everyday forces (e.g., wind, tension in ropes, pushes and pulls, weight).

P3.2.B: Compare work done in different situations.

P3.2.C: Calculate the net force acting on an object.

P3.2.d: Calculate all the forces on an object on an inclined plane and describe the object's motion based on the forces using free-body diagrams.

#### P3.3: Whenever one object exerts a force on another object, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted back on the first object.

P3.3.A: Identify the action and reaction force from examples of forces in everyday situations (e.g., book on a table, walking across the floor, pushing open a door).

P3.3.b: Predict how the change in velocity of a small mass compares to the change in velocity of a large mass when the objects interact (e.g., collide).

P3.3.c: Explain the recoil of a projectile launcher in terms of forces and masses.

P3.3.d: Analyze why seat belts may be more important in autos than in buses.

#### P3.4: The change of speed and/or direction (acceleration) of an object is proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. The acceleration and net force are always in the same direction.

P3.4.A: Predict the change in motion of an object acted on by several forces.

P3.4.C: Solve problems involving force, mass, and acceleration in linear motion (Newton's second law).

P3.4.D: Identify the force(s) acting on objects moving with uniform circular motion (e.g., a car on a circular track, satellites in orbit).

P3.4.e: Solve problems involving force, mass, and acceleration in two-dimensional projectile motion restricted to an initial horizontal velocity with no initial vertical velocity (e.g., ball rolling off a table).

P3.4.f: Calculate the changes in velocity of a thrown or hit object during and after the time it is acted on by the force.

P3.5.a: Apply conservation of momentum to solve simple collision problems.

#### P3.6: Gravitation is a universal attractive force that a mass exerts on every other mass. The strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

P3.6.A: Explain earth-moon interactions (orbital motion) in terms of forces.

P3.6.B: Predict how the gravitational force between objects changes when the distance between them changes.

P3.6.d: Calculate force, masses, or distance, given any three of these quantities, by applying the Law of Universal Gravitation, given the value of G.

#### P3.7: Electric force exists between any two charged objects. Oppositely charged objects attract, while objects with like charge repel. The strength of the electric force between two charged objects is proportional to the magnitudes of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them (Coulomb's Law).

P3.7.A: Predict how the electric force between charged objects varies when the distance between them and/or the magnitude of charges change.

P3.7.f: Determine the new electric force on charged objects after they touch and are then separated.

#### P3.8: Magnets exert forces on all objects made of ferromagnetic materials (e.g., iron, cobalt, and nickel) as well as other magnets. This force acts at a distance. Magnetic fields accompany magnets and are related to the strength and direction of the magnetic force. (prerequisite)

P3.8.b: Explain how the interaction of electric and magnetic forces is the basis for electric motors, generators, and the production of electromagnetic waves.

### P4: Energy is a useful conceptual system for explaining how the universe works and accounting for changes in matter. Energy is not a "thing." Students develop several energy-related ideas: First, they keep track of energy during transfers and transformations, and account for changes using energy conservation. Second, they identify places where energy is apparently lost during a transformation process, but is actually spread around to the environment as thermal energy and therefore not easily recoverable. Third, they identify the means of energy transfers: collisions between particles, or waves.

#### P4.1: Moving objects and waves transfer energy from one location to another. They also transfer energy to objects during interactions (e.g., sunlight transfers energy to the ground when it warms the ground; sunlight also transfers energy from the Sun to the Earth).

P4.1.B: Explain instances of energy transfer by waves and objects in everyday activities (e.g., why the ground gets warm during the day, how you hear a distant sound, why it hurts when you are hit by a baseball).

P4.1.c: Explain why work has a more precise scientific meaning than the meaning of work in everyday language.

P4.1.d: Calculate the amount of work done on an object that is moved from one position to another.

P4.1.e: Using the formula for work, derive a formula for change in potential energy of an object lifted a distance h.

#### P4.2: Energy is often transformed from one form to another. The amount of energy before a transformation is equal to the amount of energy after the transformation. In most energy transformations, some energy is converted to thermal energy.

P4.2.A: Account for and represent energy transfer and transformation in complex processes (interactions).

P4.2.C: Explain how energy is conserved in common systems (e.g., light incident on a transparent material, light incident on a leaf, mechanical energy in a collision).

#### P4.3: Moving objects have kinetic energy. Objects experiencing a force may have potential energy due to their relative positions (e.g., lifting an object or stretching a spring, energy stored in chemical bonds). Conversions between kinetic and gravitational potential energy are common in moving objects. In frictionless systems, the decrease in gravitational potential energy is equal to the increase in kinetic energy or vice versa.

P4.3.A: Identify the form of energy in given situations (e.g., moving objects, stretched springs, rocks on cliffs, energy in food).

P4.3.B: Describe the transformation between potential and kinetic energy in simple mechanical systems (e.g., pendulums, roller coasters, ski lifts).

P4.3.d: Rank the amount of kinetic energy from highest to lowest of everyday examples of moving objects.

P4.3.e: Calculate the changes in kinetic and potential energy in simple mechanical systems (e.g., pendulums, roller coasters, ski lifts) using the formulas for kinetic energy and potential energy.

P4.3.f: Calculate the impact speed (ignoring air resistance) of an object dropped from a specific height or the maximum height reached by an object (ignoring air resistance), given the initial vertical velocity.

#### P4.4: Waves (mechanical and electromagnetic) are described by their wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and speed.

P4.4.A: Describe specific mechanical waves (e.g., on a demonstration spring, on the ocean) in terms of wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and speed.

P4.4.B: Identify everyday examples of transverse and compression (longitudinal) waves.

P4.4.C: Compare and contrast transverse and compression (longitudinal) waves in terms of wavelength, amplitude, and frequency.

P4.4.e: Calculate the amount of energy transferred by transverse or compression waves of different amplitudes and frequencies (e.g., seismic waves).

#### P4.5: Vibrations in matter initiate mechanical waves (e.g., water waves, sound waves, seismic waves), which may propagate in all directions and decrease in intensity in proportion to the distance squared for a point source. Waves transfer energy from one place to another without transferring mass.

P4.5.B: Explain why an object (e.g., fishing bobber) does not move forward as a wave passes under it.

P4.5.C: Provide evidence to support the claim that sound is energy transferred by a wave, not energy transferred by particles.

#### P4.8: The laws of reflection and refraction describe the relationships between incident and reflected/refracted waves.

P4.8.B: Predict the path of reflected light from flat, curved, or rough surfaces (e.g., flat and curved mirrors, painted walls, paper).

P4.8.c: Describe how two wave pulses propagated from opposite ends of a demonstration spring interact as they meet.

P4.8.d: List and analyze everyday examples that demonstrate the interference characteristics of waves (e.g., dead spots in an auditorium, whispering galleries, colors in a CD, beetle wings).

P4.8.e: Given an angle of incidence and indices of refraction of two materials, calculate the path of a light ray incident on the boundary (Snell's Law).

#### P4.9: Light interacts with matter by reflection, absorption, or transmission.

P4.9.A: Identify the principle involved when you see a transparent object (e.g., straw, piece of glass) in a clear liquid.

P4.9.B: Explain how various materials reflect, absorb, or transmit light in different ways.

P4.9.d: Describe evidence that supports the dual wave - particle nature of light. (recommended)

#### P4.10: Current electricity is described as movement of charges. It is a particularly useful form of energy because it can be easily transferred from place to place and readily transformed by various devices into other forms of energy (e.g., light, heat, sound, and motion). Electrical current (amperage) in a circuit is determined by the potential difference (voltage) of the power source and the resistance of the loads in the circuit.

P4.10.C: Given diagrams of many different possible connections of electric circuit elements, identify complete circuits, open circuits, and short circuits and explain the reasons for the classification.

P4.10.D: Discriminate between voltage, resistance, and current as they apply to an electric circuit.

P4.10.g: Compare the currents, voltages, and power in parallel and series circuits.

P4.10.i: Compare the energy used in one day by common household appliances (e.g., refrigerator, lamps, hair dryer, toaster, televisions, music players).

P4.10.j: Explain the difference between electric power and electric energy as used in bills from an electric company.

#### P4.12: Changes in atomic nuclei can occur through three processes: fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. Fission and fusion can convert small amounts of matter into large amounts of energy. Fission is the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller nuclei at extremely high temperature and pressure. Fusion is the combination of smaller nuclei into a large nucleus and is responsible for the energy of the Sun and other stars. Radioactive decay occurs naturally in the Earth's crust (rocks, minerals) and can be used in technological applications (e.g., medical diagnosis and treatment).

P4.12.B: Describe possible problems caused by exposure to prolonged radioactive decay.

P4.12.C: Explain how stars, including our Sun, produce huge amounts of energy (e.g., visible, infrared, ultraviolet light).

Correlation last revised: 5/21/2019

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.