P2: The universe is in a state of constant change. From small particles (electrons) to the large systems (galaxies) all things are in motion. Therefore, for students to understand the universe they must describe and represent various types of motion. Kinematics, the description of motion, always involves measurements of position and time. Students must describe the relationships between these quantities using mathematical statements, graphs, and motion maps. They use these representations as powerful tools to not only describe past motions but also predict future events.

P2.1: An object's position can be measured and graphed as a function of time. An object's speed can be calculated and graphed as a function of time.

P2.1.A: Calculate the average speed of an object using the change of position and elapsed time.

 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs

P2.1.B: Represent the velocities for linear and circular motion using motion diagrams (arrows on strobe pictures).

 Uniform Circular Motion

P2.1.C: Create line graphs using measured values of position and elapsed time.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P2.1.D: Describe and analyze the motion that a position-time graph represents, given the graph.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P2.1.E: Describe and classify various motions in a plane as one dimensional, two dimensional, circular, or periodic.

 Distance-Time Graphs
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Period of Mass on a Spring
 Period of a Pendulum
 Shoot the Monkey
 Simple Harmonic Motion
 Uniform Circular Motion

P2.1.F: Distinguish between rotation and revolution and describe and contrast the two speeds of an object like the Earth.

 Gravity Pitch
 Orbital Motion - Kepler's Laws

P2.1.g: Solve problems involving average speed and constant acceleration in one dimension.

 Atwood Machine
 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P2.1.h: Identify the changes in speed and direction in everyday examples of circular (rotation and revolution), periodic, and projectile motions.

 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey
 Torque and Moment of Inertia
 Uniform Circular Motion

P2.2: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.

P2.2.A: Distinguish between the variables of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.

 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Measuring Motion
 Shoot the Monkey

P2.2.B: Use the change of speed and elapsed time to calculate the average acceleration for linear motion.

 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P2.2.C: Describe and analyze the motion that a velocity-time graph represents, given the graph.

 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P2.2.D: State that uniform circular motion involves acceleration without a change in speed.

 Uniform Circular Motion

P2.2.e: Use the area under a velocity-time graph to calculate the distance traveled and the slope to calculate the acceleration.

 Distance-Time and Velocity-Time Graphs
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P2.2.g: Apply the independence of the vertical and horizontal initial velocities to solve projectile motion problems.

 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

P3: Students identify interactions between objects either as being by direct contact (e.g., pushes or pulls, friction) or at a distance (e.g., gravity, electromagnetism), and to use forces to describe interactions between objects. They recognize that non-zero net forces always cause changes in motion (Newton's first law). These changes can be changes in speed, direction, or both. Students use Newton's second law to summarize relationships among and solve problems involving net forces, masses, and changes in motion (using standard metric units). They explain that whenever one object exerts a force on another, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted back on it (Newton's third law).

P3.1: Objects can interact with each other by "direct contact" (e.g., pushes or pulls, friction) or at a distance (e.g., gravity, electromagnetism, nuclear).

P3.1.A: Identify the force(s) acting between objects in "direct contact" or at a distance.

 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P3.1.c: Provide examples that illustrate the importance of the electric force in everyday life.

 Charge Launcher
 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Pith Ball Lab

P3.2: Forces have magnitude and direction. The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object. Objects change their speed and/or direction only when a net force is applied. If the net force on an object is zero, there is no change in motion (Newton's First Law).

P3.2.A: Identify the magnitude and direction of everyday forces (e.g., wind, tension in ropes, pushes and pulls, weight).

 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Determining a Spring Constant
 Gravitational Force
 Pith Ball Lab

P3.2.B: Compare work done in different situations.

 Ants on a Slant (Inclined Plane)
 Pulley Lab

P3.2.C: Calculate the net force acting on an object.

 Atwood Machine

P3.2.d: Calculate all the forces on an object on an inclined plane and describe the object's motion based on the forces using free-body diagrams.

 Inclined Plane - Simple Machine

P3.3: Whenever one object exerts a force on another object, a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction is exerted back on the first object.

P3.3.A: Identify the action and reaction force from examples of forces in everyday situations (e.g., book on a table, walking across the floor, pushing open a door).

 Fan Cart Physics

P3.3.b: Predict how the change in velocity of a small mass compares to the change in velocity of a large mass when the objects interact (e.g., collide).

 2D Collisions
 Air Track
 Fan Cart Physics

P3.3.c: Explain the recoil of a projectile launcher in terms of forces and masses.

 Fan Cart Physics

P3.3.d: Analyze why seat belts may be more important in autos than in buses.

 Air Track
 Fan Cart Physics

P3.4: The change of speed and/or direction (acceleration) of an object is proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. The acceleration and net force are always in the same direction.

P3.4.A: Predict the change in motion of an object acted on by several forces.

 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics

P3.4.C: Solve problems involving force, mass, and acceleration in linear motion (Newton's second law).

 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics
 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory

P3.4.D: Identify the force(s) acting on objects moving with uniform circular motion (e.g., a car on a circular track, satellites in orbit).

 Gravity Pitch
 Orbital Motion - Kepler's Laws
 Uniform Circular Motion

P3.4.e: Solve problems involving force, mass, and acceleration in two-dimensional projectile motion restricted to an initial horizontal velocity with no initial vertical velocity (e.g., ball rolling off a table).

 Atwood Machine
 Fan Cart Physics

P3.4.f: Calculate the changes in velocity of a thrown or hit object during and after the time it is acted on by the force.

 Golf Range

P3.5.a: Apply conservation of momentum to solve simple collision problems.

 2D Collisions
 Air Track

P3.6: Gravitation is a universal attractive force that a mass exerts on every other mass. The strength of the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

P3.6.A: Explain earth-moon interactions (orbital motion) in terms of forces.

 Gravity Pitch
 Orbital Motion - Kepler's Laws

P3.6.B: Predict how the gravitational force between objects changes when the distance between them changes.

 Gravitational Force
 Pith Ball Lab

P3.6.d: Calculate force, masses, or distance, given any three of these quantities, by applying the Law of Universal Gravitation, given the value of G.

 Gravitational Force
 Pith Ball Lab

P3.7: Electric force exists between any two charged objects. Oppositely charged objects attract, while objects with like charge repel. The strength of the electric force between two charged objects is proportional to the magnitudes of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them (Coulomb's Law).

P3.7.A: Predict how the electric force between charged objects varies when the distance between them and/or the magnitude of charges change.

 Charge Launcher
 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Pith Ball Lab

P3.7.f: Determine the new electric force on charged objects after they touch and are then separated.

 Charge Launcher
 Coulomb Force (Static)
 Pith Ball Lab

P3.8: Magnets exert forces on all objects made of ferromagnetic materials (e.g., iron, cobalt, and nickel) as well as other magnets. This force acts at a distance. Magnetic fields accompany magnets and are related to the strength and direction of the magnetic force. (prerequisite)

P3.8.b: Explain how the interaction of electric and magnetic forces is the basis for electric motors, generators, and the production of electromagnetic waves.

 Electromagnetic Induction

P4: Energy is a useful conceptual system for explaining how the universe works and accounting for changes in matter. Energy is not a "thing." Students develop several energy-related ideas: First, they keep track of energy during transfers and transformations, and account for changes using energy conservation. Second, they identify places where energy is apparently lost during a transformation process, but is actually spread around to the environment as thermal energy and therefore not easily recoverable. Third, they identify the means of energy transfers: collisions between particles, or waves.

P4.1: Moving objects and waves transfer energy from one location to another. They also transfer energy to objects during interactions (e.g., sunlight transfers energy to the ground when it warms the ground; sunlight also transfers energy from the Sun to the Earth).

P4.1.B: Explain instances of energy transfer by waves and objects in everyday activities (e.g., why the ground gets warm during the day, how you hear a distant sound, why it hurts when you are hit by a baseball).

 Heat Absorption
 Radiation

P4.1.c: Explain why work has a more precise scientific meaning than the meaning of work in everyday language.

 Ants on a Slant (Inclined Plane)
 Pulley Lab

P4.1.d: Calculate the amount of work done on an object that is moved from one position to another.

 Ants on a Slant (Inclined Plane)
 Pulley Lab

P4.1.e: Using the formula for work, derive a formula for change in potential energy of an object lifted a distance h.

 Pulley Lab

P4.2: Energy is often transformed from one form to another. The amount of energy before a transformation is equal to the amount of energy after the transformation. In most energy transformations, some energy is converted to thermal energy.

P4.2.A: Account for and represent energy transfer and transformation in complex processes (interactions).

 Energy Conversion in a System

P4.2.C: Explain how energy is conserved in common systems (e.g., light incident on a transparent material, light incident on a leaf, mechanical energy in a collision).

 2D Collisions
 Air Track
 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Sled Wars

P4.3: Moving objects have kinetic energy. Objects experiencing a force may have potential energy due to their relative positions (e.g., lifting an object or stretching a spring, energy stored in chemical bonds). Conversions between kinetic and gravitational potential energy are common in moving objects. In frictionless systems, the decrease in gravitational potential energy is equal to the increase in kinetic energy or vice versa.

P4.3.A: Identify the form of energy in given situations (e.g., moving objects, stretched springs, rocks on cliffs, energy in food).

 Air Track
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Potential Energy on Shelves
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Sled Wars

P4.3.B: Describe the transformation between potential and kinetic energy in simple mechanical systems (e.g., pendulums, roller coasters, ski lifts).

 Energy Conversion in a System
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Sled Wars

P4.3.d: Rank the amount of kinetic energy from highest to lowest of everyday examples of moving objects.

 Air Track
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Sled Wars

P4.3.e: Calculate the changes in kinetic and potential energy in simple mechanical systems (e.g., pendulums, roller coasters, ski lifts) using the formulas for kinetic energy and potential energy.

 Air Track
 Energy of a Pendulum
 Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
 Roller Coaster Physics
 Sled Wars

P4.3.f: Calculate the impact speed (ignoring air resistance) of an object dropped from a specific height or the maximum height reached by an object (ignoring air resistance), given the initial vertical velocity.

 Free Fall Tower
 Free-Fall Laboratory
 Golf Range
 Shoot the Monkey

P4.4: Waves (mechanical and electromagnetic) are described by their wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and speed.

P4.4.A: Describe specific mechanical waves (e.g., on a demonstration spring, on the ocean) in terms of wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and speed.

 Longitudinal Waves
 Ripple Tank

P4.4.B: Identify everyday examples of transverse and compression (longitudinal) waves.

 Longitudinal Waves

P4.4.C: Compare and contrast transverse and compression (longitudinal) waves in terms of wavelength, amplitude, and frequency.

 Longitudinal Waves

P4.4.e: Calculate the amount of energy transferred by transverse or compression waves of different amplitudes and frequencies (e.g., seismic waves).

 Heat Absorption

P4.5: Vibrations in matter initiate mechanical waves (e.g., water waves, sound waves, seismic waves), which may propagate in all directions and decrease in intensity in proportion to the distance squared for a point source. Waves transfer energy from one place to another without transferring mass.

P4.5.B: Explain why an object (e.g., fishing bobber) does not move forward as a wave passes under it.

 Longitudinal Waves

P4.5.C: Provide evidence to support the claim that sound is energy transferred by a wave, not energy transferred by particles.

 Longitudinal Waves

P4.8: The laws of reflection and refraction describe the relationships between incident and reflected/refracted waves.

P4.8.B: Predict the path of reflected light from flat, curved, or rough surfaces (e.g., flat and curved mirrors, painted walls, paper).

 Laser Reflection
 Ray Tracing (Mirrors)

P4.8.c: Describe how two wave pulses propagated from opposite ends of a demonstration spring interact as they meet.

 Longitudinal Waves
 Sound Beats and Sine Waves

P4.8.d: List and analyze everyday examples that demonstrate the interference characteristics of waves (e.g., dead spots in an auditorium, whispering galleries, colors in a CD, beetle wings).

 Sound Beats and Sine Waves

P4.8.e: Given an angle of incidence and indices of refraction of two materials, calculate the path of a light ray incident on the boundary (Snell's Law).

 Basic Prism
 Laser Reflection
 Refraction

P4.9: Light interacts with matter by reflection, absorption, or transmission.

P4.9.A: Identify the principle involved when you see a transparent object (e.g., straw, piece of glass) in a clear liquid.

 Basic Prism
 Refraction

P4.9.B: Explain how various materials reflect, absorb, or transmit light in different ways.

 Color Absorption
 Heat Absorption

P4.9.d: Describe evidence that supports the dual wave - particle nature of light. (recommended)

 Photoelectric Effect

P4.10: Current electricity is described as movement of charges. It is a particularly useful form of energy because it can be easily transferred from place to place and readily transformed by various devices into other forms of energy (e.g., light, heat, sound, and motion). Electrical current (amperage) in a circuit is determined by the potential difference (voltage) of the power source and the resistance of the loads in the circuit.

P4.10.C: Given diagrams of many different possible connections of electric circuit elements, identify complete circuits, open circuits, and short circuits and explain the reasons for the classification.

 Circuit Builder

P4.10.D: Discriminate between voltage, resistance, and current as they apply to an electric circuit.

 Advanced Circuits
 Circuit Builder
 Circuits

P4.10.g: Compare the currents, voltages, and power in parallel and series circuits.

 Advanced Circuits
 Circuit Builder
 Circuits

P4.10.i: Compare the energy used in one day by common household appliances (e.g., refrigerator, lamps, hair dryer, toaster, televisions, music players).

 Household Energy Usage

P4.10.j: Explain the difference between electric power and electric energy as used in bills from an electric company.

 Household Energy Usage

P4.12: Changes in atomic nuclei can occur through three processes: fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. Fission and fusion can convert small amounts of matter into large amounts of energy. Fission is the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller nuclei at extremely high temperature and pressure. Fusion is the combination of smaller nuclei into a large nucleus and is responsible for the energy of the Sun and other stars. Radioactive decay occurs naturally in the Earth's crust (rocks, minerals) and can be used in technological applications (e.g., medical diagnosis and treatment).

P4.12.B: Describe possible problems caused by exposure to prolonged radioactive decay.

 Evolution: Natural and Artificial Selection

P4.12.C: Explain how stars, including our Sun, produce huge amounts of energy (e.g., visible, infrared, ultraviolet light).

 Herschel Experiment
 Radiation

Correlation last revised: 4/4/2018

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.