C2: Students recognize the many forms of energy and understand that energy is central to predicting and explaining how and why chemical reactions occur. The chemical topics of bonding, gas behavior, kinetics, enthalpy, entropy, free energy, and nuclear stability are addressed in this standard. Chemistry students relate temperature to the average kinetic energy of the molecules and use the kinetic molecular theory to describe and explain the behavior of gases and the rates of chemical reactions. They understand nuclear stability in terms of reaching a state of minimum potential energy.

C2.p1: Three forms of potential energy are gravitational, elastic, and chemical. Objects can have elastic potential energy due to their compression or chemical potential energy due to the arrangement of the atoms. (prerequisite)

C2.p1.A: Describe energy changes associated with changes of state in terms of the arrangement and order of the atoms (molecules) in each state. (prerequisite)

 Phase Changes

C2.p1.B: Use the positions and arrangements of atoms and molecules in solid, liquid, and gas state to explain the need for an input of energy for melting and boiling and a release of energy in condensation and freezing. (prerequisite)

 Phase Changes

C2.1.c: Compare qualitatively the energy changes associated with melting various types of solids in terms of the types of forces between the particles in the solid.

 Phase Changes

C2.2: Molecules that compose matter are in constant motion (translational, rotational, vibrational). Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions between molecules.

C2.2.B: Describe the various states of matter in terms of the motion and arrangement of the molecules (atoms) making up the substance.

 Phase Changes

C2.2.c: Explain changes in pressure, volume, and temperature for gases using the kinetic molecular model.

 Temperature and Particle Motion

C2.2.d: Explain convection and the difference in transfer of thermal energy for solids, liquids, and gases using evidence that molecules are in constant motion.

 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Transfer by Conduction

C2.3.a: Explain how the rate of a given chemical reaction is dependent on the temperature and the activation energy.

 Collision Theory

C2.4.a: Describe energy changes in flame tests of common elements in terms of the (characteristic) electron transitions.

 Bohr Model of Hydrogen
 Bohr Model: Introduction
 Star Spectra

C2.4.b: Contrast the mechanism of energy changes and the appearance of absorption and emission spectra.

 Bohr Model of Hydrogen
 Bohr Model: Introduction
 Star Spectra

C2.4.d: Compare various wavelengths of light (visible and nonvisible) in terms of frequency and relative energy.

 Heat Absorption
 Herschel Experiment
 Radiation

C2.5.a: Determine the age of materials using the ratio of stable and unstable isotopes of a particular type.

 Half-life

C3: Students apply the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics to explain and predict most chemical phenomena. Chemistry students use the term enthalpy to describe the transfer of energy between reactants and products in simple calorimetry experiments performed in class and will recognize Hess's Law as an application of the conservation of energy. Students understand the tremendous energy released in nuclear reactions is a result of small amounts of matter being converted to energy.

C3.p2: Nuclear reactions take place in the sun. In plants, light from the sun is transferred to oxygen and carbon compounds, which, in combination, have chemical potential energy (photosynthesis). (prerequisite)

C3.p2.A: Trace (or diagram) energy transfers involving various types of energy including nuclear, chemical, electrical, sound, and light. (prerequisite)

 Heat Absorption
 Radiation

C3.3: Heating increases the kinetic (translational, rotational, and vibrational) energy of the atoms composing elements and the molecules or ions composing compounds. As the kinetic (translational) energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions increases, the temperature of the matter increases. Heating a sample of a crystalline solid increases the kinetic (vibrational) energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions. When the kinetic (vibrational) energy becomes great enough, the crystalline structure breaks down, and the solid melts.

C3.3.A: Describe how heat is conducted in a solid.

 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Transfer by Conduction

C3.3.B: Describe melting on a molecular level.

 Phase Changes

C3.4: Chemical interactions either release energy to the environment (exothermic) or absorb energy from the environment (endothermic).

C3.4.A: Use the terms endothermic and exothermic correctly to describe chemical reactions in the laboratory.

 Chemical Changes

C3.4.B: Explain why chemical reactions will either release or absorb energy.

 Chemical Changes

C4: Compounds, elements, and mixtures are categories used to organize matter. Students organize materials into these categories based on their chemical and physical behavior. Students understand the structure of the atom to make predictions about the physical and chemical properties of various elements and the types of compounds those elements will form. An understanding of the organization the Periodic Table in terms of the outer electron configuration is one of the most important tools for the chemist and student to use in prediction and explanation of the structure and behavior of atoms.

C4.p1: Properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by a model of matter that is composed of tiny particles in motion. (prerequisite)

C4.p1.A: For a substance that can exist in all three phases, describe the relative motion of the particles in each of the phases. (prerequisite)

 Phase Changes

C4.p1.B: For a substance that can exist in all three phases, make a drawing that shows the arrangement and relative spacing of the particles in each of the phases. (prerequisite)

 Phase Changes

C4.p1.C: For a simple compound, present a drawing that shows the number of particles in the system does not change as a result of a phase change. (prerequisite)

 Phase Changes

C4.p2: Elements are a class of substances composed of a single kind of atom. Compounds are composed of two or more different elements chemically combined. Mixtures are composed of two or more different elements and/or compounds physically combined. Each element and compound has physical and chemical properties, such as boiling point, density, color, and conductivity, which are independent of the amount of the sample. (prerequisite)

C4.p2.A: Distinguish between an element, compound, or mixture based on drawings or formulae. (prerequisite)

 Chemical Equations

C4.1.c: Use the empirical formula and molecular weight of a compound to determine the molecular formula.

 Chemical Equations
 Stoichiometry

C4.2: All compounds have unique names that are determined systematically.

C4.2.A: Name simple binary compounds using their formulae.

 Chemical Equations

C4.2.B: Given the name, write the formula of simple binary compounds.

 Chemical Equations

C4.2.c: Given a formula, name the compound.

 Chemical Equations

C4.3: Differences in the physical and chemical properties of substances are explained by the arrangement of the atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances and by the strength of the forces of attraction between the atoms, ions, or molecules.

C4.3.e: Predict whether the forces of attraction in a solid are primarily metallic, covalent, network covalent, or ionic based upon the elements' location on the periodic table.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C4.4.a: Explain why at room temperature different compounds can exist in different phases.

 Phase Changes

C4.6.a: Calculate the number of moles of any compound or element given the mass of the substance.

 Chemical Equations

C4.7.a: Investigate the difference in the boiling point or freezing point of pure water and a salt solution.

 Freezing Point of Salt Water

C4.8: Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.

C4.8.A: Identify the location, relative mass, and charge for electrons, protons, and neutrons.

 Element Builder

C4.8.B: Describe the atom as mostly empty space with an extremely small, dense nucleus consisting of the protons and neutrons and an electron cloud surrounding the nucleus.

 Element Builder

C4.8.D: Give the number of electrons and protons present if the fluoride ion has a -1 charge.

 Element Builder

C4.8.e: Write the complete electron configuration of elements in the first four rows of the periodic table.

 Electron Configuration

C4.8.f: Write kernel structures for main group elements.

 Electron Configuration

C4.8.g: Predict oxidation states and bonding capacity for main group elements using their electron structure.

 Covalent Bonds
 Electron Configuration
 Ionic Bonds

C4.8.h: Describe the shape and orientation of s and p orbitals.

 Electron Configuration

C4.9: In the periodic table, elements are arranged in order of increasing number of protons (called the atomic number). Vertical groups in the periodic table (families) have similar physical and chemical properties due to the same outer electron structures.

C4.9.A: Identify elements with similar chemical and physical properties using the periodic table.

 Electron Configuration

C4.9.c: Predict general trends in atomic radius, first ionization energy, and electronegativity of the elements using the periodic table.

 Electron Configuration

C4.10: A neutral atom of any element will contain the same number of protons and electrons. Ions are charged particles with an unequal number of protons and electrons. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons and essentially the same chemical and physical properties.

C4.10.A: List the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons for any given ion or isotope.

 Element Builder

C4.10.B: Recognize that an element always contains the same number of protons.

 Element Builder

C4.10.c: Calculate the average atomic mass of an element given the percent abundance and mass of the individual isotopes.

 Element Builder

C4.10.e: Write the symbol for an isotope, X Z A , where Z is the atomic number, A is the mass number, and X is the symbol for the element.

 Element Builder

C5: Students will analyze a chemical change phenomenon from the point of view of what is the same and what is not the same.

C5.1.a: Predict how the rate of a chemical reaction will be influenced by changes in concentration, and temperature, pressure. (recommended)

 Collision Theory

C5.1.b: Explain how the rate of a reaction will depend on concentration, temperature, pressure, and nature of reactant. (recommended)

 Collision Theory

C5.2: Chemical changes can occur when two substances, elements, or compounds interact and produce one or more different substances whose physical and chemical properties are different from the interacting substances. When substances undergo chemical change, the number of atoms in the reactants is the same as the number of atoms in the products. This can be shown through simple balancing of chemical equations. Mass is conserved when substances undergo chemical change. The total mass of the interacting substances (reactants) is the same as the total mass of the substances produced (products).

C5.2.A: Balance simple chemical equations applying the conservation of matter.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations

C5.2.C: Draw pictures to distinguish the relationships between atoms in physical and chemical changes.

 Chemical Changes

C5.2.d: Calculate the mass of a particular compound formed from the masses of starting materials.

 Chemical Equations

C5.2.e: Identify the limiting reagent when given the masses of more than one reactant.

 Limiting Reactants

C5.3.a: Describe equilibrium shifts in a chemical system caused by changing conditions (Le Chatelier's Principle).

 Equilibrium and Concentration
 Equilibrium and Pressure

C5.3.b: Predict shifts in a chemical system caused by changing conditions (Le Chatelier's Principle).

 Equilibrium and Concentration
 Equilibrium and Pressure

C5.3.c: Predict the extent reactants are converted to products using the value of the equilibrium constant.

 Equilibrium and Concentration
 Equilibrium and Pressure

C5.4: Changes of state require a transfer of energy. Water has unusually high-energy changes associated with its changes of state.

C5.4.A: Compare the energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of aluminum and one gram of water the same number of degrees.

 Calorimetry Lab

C5.5: An atom's electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom can interact with other atoms. The interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions are called chemical bonds.

C5.5.A: Predict if the bonding between two atoms of different elements will be primarily ionic or covalent.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C5.4.B: Measure, plot, and interpret the graph of the temperature versus time of an ice-water mixture, under slow heating, through melting and boiling.

 Chemical Equations

C5.5.c: Draw Lewis structures for simple compounds.

 Covalent Bonds
 Ionic Bonds

C5.6.b: Predict single replacement reactions.

 Balancing Chemical Equations
 Chemical Equations
 Equilibrium and Concentration

C5.7: Acids and bases are important classes of chemicals that are recognized by easily observed properties in the laboratory. Acids and bases will neutralize each other. Acid formulas usually begin with hydrogen, and base formulas are a metal with a hydroxide ion. As the pH decreases, a solution becomes more acidic. A difference of one pH unit is a factor of 10 in hydrogen ion concentration.

C5.7.C: Describe tests that can be used to distinguish an acid from a base.

 Mystery Powder Analysis
 Titration
 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

C5.7.D: Classify various solutions as acidic or basic, given their pH.

 pH Analysis
 pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

Correlation last revised: 4/4/2018

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.