E2: Students describe the interactions within and between Earth systems. Students will explain how both fluids (water cycle) and solids (rock cycle) move within Earth systems and how these movements form and change their environment. They will describe the relationship between physical process and human activities and use this understanding to demonstrate an ability to make wise decisions about land use.

E2.1: The Earth is a system consisting of four major interacting components: geosphere (crust, mantle, and core), atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), and biosphere (the living part of Earth). Physical, chemical, and biological processes act within and among the four components on a wide range of time scales to continuously change Earth's crust, oceans, atmosphere, and living organisms. Earth elements move within and between the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere as part of geochemical cycles.

E2.1.B: Analyze the interactions between the major systems (geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere) that make up the Earth.

 Carbon Cycle

E2.1.C: Explain, using specific examples, how a change in one system affects other Earth systems.

 Cell Energy Cycle

E2.2: Energy in Earth systems can exist in a number of forms (e.g., thermal energy as heat in the Earth, chemical energy stored as fossil fuels, mechanical energy as delivered by tides) and can be transformed from one state to another and move from one reservoir to another. Movement of matter and its component elements, through and between Earth's systems, is driven by Earth's internal (radioactive decay and gravity) and external (Sun as primary) sources of energy. Thermal energy is transferred by radiation, convection, and conduction. Fossil fuels are derived from plants and animals of the past, are nonrenewable, and, therefore, are limited in availability. All sources of energy for human consumption (e.g., solar, wind, nuclear, ethanol, hydrogen, geothermal, hydroelectric) have advantages and disadvantages.

E2.2.C: Describe natural processes in which heat transfer in the Earth occurs by conduction, convection, and radiation.

 Conduction and Convection
 Heat Absorption
 Heat Transfer by Conduction
 Herschel Experiment
 Radiation

E2.2.f: Explain how elements exist in different compounds and states as they move from one reservoir to another.

 Cell Energy Cycle

E2.4: The Earth provides resources (including minerals) that are used to sustain human affairs. The supply of nonrenewable natural resources is limited and their extraction and use can release elements and compounds into Earth systems. They affect air and water quality, ecosystems, landscapes, and may have effects on long-term climate. Plans for land use and long-term development must include an understanding of the interactions between Earth systems and human activities.

E2.4.B: Explain how the impact of human activities on the environment (e.g., deforestation, air pollution, coral reef destruction) can be understood through the analysis of interactions between the four Earth systems.

 Carbon Cycle
 Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors

E3: Students explain how scientists study and model the interior of the Earth and its dynamic nature. They use the theory of plate tectonics, the unifying theory of geology, to explain a wide variety of Earth features and processes and how hazards resulting from these processes impact society.

E3.p1: Landforms are the result of a combination of constructive and destructive forces. Constructive forces include crustal deformation, volcanic eruptions, and deposition of sediments transported in rivers, streams, and lakes through watersheds. Destructive forces include weathering and erosion. The weathering of rocks and decomposed organic matter result in the formation of soils. (prerequisite)

E3.p1.A: Explain the origin of Michigan landforms. Describe and identify surface features using maps and satellite images. (prerequisite)

 Building Topographic Maps

E3.p2: Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are constantly forming and changing through various processes. As they do so, elements move through the geosphere. In addition to other geologic features, rocks and minerals are indicators of geologic and environmental conditions that existed in the past. (prerequisite)

E3.p2.B: Identify common igneous (granite, basalt, andesite, obsidian, pumice), metamorphic (schist, gneiss, marble, slate, quartzite), and sedimentary (sandstone, limestone, shale, conglomerate) rocks and describe the processes that change one kind of rock to another. (prerequisite)

 Rock Cycle

E3.p3: Early evidence for the movement of continents was based on the similarities of coastlines, geology, faunal distributions, and paleoclimatelogical data across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. In the 1960s, additional evidence from marine geophysical surveys, seismology, volcanology, and paleomagnetism resulted in the development of the theory of plate tectonics. (prerequisite)

E3.p3.A: Describe geologic, paleontologic, and paleoclimatalogic evidence that indicates Africa and South America were once part of a single continent.

 Building Pangaea

E3.p3.B: Describe the three types of plate boundaries (divergent, convergent, and transform) and geographic features associated with them (e.g., continental rifts and mid-ocean ridges, volcanic and island arcs, deep-sea trenches, transform faults).

 Plate Tectonics

E3.p3.C: Describe the three major types of volcanoes (shield volcano, stratovolcano, and cinder cones) and their relationship to the Ring of Fire.

 Plate Tectonics

E3.1: Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are indicators of geologic and environmental conditions and processes that existed in the past. These include cooling and crystallization, weathering and erosion, sedimentation and lithification, and metamorphism. In some way, all of these processes are influenced by plate tectonics, and some are influenced by climate.

E3.1.A: Discriminate between igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and describe the processes that change one kind of rock into another.

 Rock Classification
 Rock Cycle

E3.1.B: Explain the relationship between the rock cycle and plate tectonics theory in regard to the origins of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

 Rock Cycle

E3.2: The Earth can also be subdivided into concentric layers based on their physical characteristics: (lithosphere, asthenosphere, lower mantle, outer core, and inner core). The crust and upper mantle compose the rigid lithosphere (plates) that moves over a "softer" asthenosphere (part of the upper mantle). The magnetic field of the Earth is generated in the outer core. The interior of the Earth cannot be directly sampled and must be modeled using data from seismology.

E3.2.C: Describe the differences between oceanic and continental crust (including density, age, composition).

 Plate Tectonics

E3.3: The Earth's crust and upper mantle make up the lithosphere, which is broken into large mobile pieces called tectonic plates. The plates move at velocities in units of centimeters per year as measured using the global positioning system (GPS). Motion histories are determined with calculations that relate rate, time, and distance of offset geologic features. Oceanic plates are created at mid-ocean ridges by magmatic activity and cooled until they sink back into the Earth at subduction zones. At some localities, plates slide by each other. Mountain belts are formed both by continental collision and as a result of subduction. The outward flow of heat from Earth's interior provides the driving energy for plate tectonics.

E3.3.A: Explain how plate tectonics accounts for the features and processes (sea floor spreading, mid-ocean ridges, subduction zones, earthquakes and volcanoes, mountain ranges) that occur on or near the Earth's surface.

 Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
 Plate Tectonics

E3.3.d: Distinguish plate boundaries by the pattern of depth and magnitude of earthquakes.

 Plate Tectonics

E3.4: Plate motions result in potentially catastrophic events (earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, mass wasting) that affect humanity. The intensity of volcanic eruptions is controlled by the chemistry and properties of the magma. Earthquakes are the result of abrupt movements of the Earth. They generate energy in the form of body and surface waves.

E3.4.A: Use the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes to locate and determine the types of plate boundaries.

 Plate Tectonics

E3.4.e: Explain how volcanoes change the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and other Earth systems.

 Plate Tectonics

E4: Students explain how the ocean and atmosphere move and transfer energy around the planet. They also explain how these movements affect climate and weather and how severe weather impacts society. Students explain how long term climatic changes (glaciers) have shaped the Michigan landscape. They also explain features and processes related to surface and ground- water and describe the sustainability of systems in terms of water quality and quantity.

E4.p1: Water circulates through the crust and atmosphere and in oceans, rivers, glaciers, and ice caps and connects all of the Earth systems. Groundwater is a significant reservoir and source of freshwater on Earth. The recharge and movement of groundwater depends on porosity, permeability, and the shape of the water table. The movement of groundwater occurs over a long period time. Groundwater and surface water are often interconnected. (prerequisite)

E4.p1.A: Describe that the water cycle includes evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, groundwater, and absorption. (prerequisite)

 Water Cycle

E4.p2: The atmosphere is divided into layers defined by temperature. Clouds are indicators of weather. (prerequisite)

E4.p2.B: Describe the difference between weather and climate. (prerequisite)

 Coastal Winds and Clouds

E4.p2.D: Describe relative humidity in terms of the moisture content of the air and the moisture capacity of the air and how these depend on the temperature. (prerequisite)

 Relative Humidity

E4.p2.E: Describe conditions associated with frontal boundaries (cold, warm, stationary, and occluded). (prerequisite)

 Weather Maps

E4.p2.G: Interpret a weather map and describe present weather conditions and predict changes in weather over 24 hours. (prerequisite)

 Hurricane Motion
 Weather Maps

E4.p2.H: Explain the primary causes of seasons. (prerequisite)

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Why do we have them?

E4.3: Tornadoes, hurricanes, blizzards, and thunderstorms are severe weather phenomena that impact society and ecosystems. Hazards include downbursts (wind shear), strong winds, hail, lightning, heavy rain, and flooding. The movement of air in the atmosphere is due to differences in air density resulting from variations in temperature. Many weather conditions can be explained by fronts that occur when air masses meet.

E4.3.A: Describe the various conditions of formation associated with severe weather (thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, waves, and drought).

 Hurricane Motion

E4.3.B: Describe the damage resulting from, and the social impact of thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods.

 Hurricane Motion

E4.3.F: Describe how mountains, frontal wedging (including dry lines), convection, and convergence form clouds and precipitation.

 Coastal Winds and Clouds
 Weather Maps

E5: Students explain theories about how the Earth and universe formed and evolved over a long period of time. Students predict how human activities may influence the climate of the future.

E5.p1: Common sky observations (such as lunar phases) can be explained by the motion of solar system objects in regular and predictable patterns. Our galaxy, observable as the Milky Way, is composed of billions of stars, some of which have planetary systems. Seasons are a result of the tilt of the rotation axis of the Earth. The motions of the moon and sun affect the phases of the moon and ocean tides. (prerequisite)

E5.p1.A: Describe the motions of various celestial bodies and some effects of those motions. (prerequisite)

 Comparing Earth and Venus
 Phases of the Moon

E5.p1.B: Explain the primary cause of seasons. (prerequisite)

 Seasons Around the World
 Seasons in 3D
 Seasons: Why do we have them?

E5.1: Scientific evidence indicates the universe is orderly in structure, finite, and contains all matter and energy. Information from the entire light spectrum tells us about the composition and motion of objects in the universe. Early in the history of the universe, matter clumped together by gravitational attraction to form stars and galaxies. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe has been continually expanding at an increasing rate since its formation about 13.7 billion years ago.

E5.1.d: Differentiate between the cosmological and Doppler red shift.

 Doppler Shift
 Doppler Shift Advanced

E5.2: Stars, including the Sun, transform matter into energy in nuclear reactions. When hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium, a small amount of matter is converted to energy. Solar energy is responsible for life processes and weather as well as phenomena on Earth. These and other processes in stars have led to the formation of all the other chemical elements.

E5.2.e: Explain how the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram can be used to deduce other parameters (distance).

 H-R Diagram

E5.2.f: Explain how you can infer the temperature, life span, and mass of a star from its color. Use the H-R diagram to explain the life cycles of stars.

 H-R Diagram

E5.2.h: Compare the evolution paths of low-, moderate-, and high-mass stars using the H-R diagram.

 H-R Diagram

E5.3: The solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 Ga (billion years ago). The Earth has changed through time and has been affected by both catastrophic (e.g., earthquakes, meteorite impacts, volcanoes) and gradual geologic events (e.g., plate movements, mountain building) as well as the effects of biological evolution (formation of an oxygen atmosphere). Geologic time can be determined through both relative and absolute dating.

E5.3.B: Describe the process of radioactive decay and explain how radioactive elements are used to date the rocks that contain them.

 Half-life

E5.3.e: Determine the approximate age of a sample, when given the half-life of a radioactive substance (in graph or tabular form) along with the ratio of daughter to parent substances present in the sample.

 Half-life

E5.4: Atmospheric gases trap solar energy that has been reradiated from the Earth's surface (the greenhouse effect). The Earth's climate has changed both gradually and catastrophically over geological and historical time frames due to complex interactions between many natural variables and events. The concentration of greenhouse gases (especially carbon dioxide) has increased due to human industrialization, which has contributed to a rise in average global atmospheric temperatures and changes in the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. Climates of the past are researched, usually using indirect indicators, to better understand and predict climate change.

E5.4.A: Explain the natural mechanism of the greenhouse effect, including comparisons of the major greenhouse gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone).

 Carbon Cycle
 Greenhouse Effect

E5.4.C: Analyze the empirical relationship between the emissions of carbon dioxide, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and the average global temperature over the past 150 years.

 Greenhouse Effect

E5.4.D: Based on evidence of observable changes in recent history and climate change models, explain the consequences of warmer oceans (including the results of increased evaporation, shoreline and estuarine impacts, oceanic algae growth, and coral bleaching) and changing climatic zones (including the adaptive capacity of the biosphere).

 Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon
 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

 Phases of the Moon

Correlation last revised: 1/20/2017

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.