2: Materials exist throughout our physical world. The structures of materials influence their physical properties, chemical reactivity and use.
2.1: The structures of materials determine their properties.
2.1.1: Test objects for their conductivity and classify the objects based on whether they conduct electricity (conductors) or do not conduct electricity (insulators).
2.1.2: Test objects for their magnetism and classify objects based on whether they are attracted to a magnet or not attracted to a magnet.
2.1.3: Investigate evaporation and condensation. Recognize the relationship between temperature and changes of state from liquid to gas in evaporation and gas to liquid in condensation using water as an example.
Phases of Water
3: The flow of energy drives processes of change in all biological, chemical, physical, and geological systems. Energy stored in a variety of sources can be transformed into other energy forms, which influence many facets of our daily lives. The forms of energy involved and the properties of the materials involved influence the nature of the energy transformations and the mechanisms by which energy is transferred. The conservation of energy is a law that can be used to analyze and build understandings of diverse physical and biological systems.
3.1: Energy takes many forms. These forms can be grouped into types of energy that are associated with the motion of mass (kinetic energy), and types of energy associated with the position of mass and with energy fields (potential energy).
3.1.1: Identify, as basic forms of energy; light, heat, sound, electrical, and energy of motion.
3.2: Changes take place because of the transfer of energy. Energy is transferred to matter through the action of forces. Different forces are responsible for the transfer of the different forms of energy.
3.2.1: Identify the basic components (i.e., battery, wires, bulbs, switch) of an electric circuit and understand their function. Draw an example circuit and label the important parts. Relate that circuits must take the form of complete (closed) loops before electrical energy can pass.
3.2.2: Use diagrams to illustrate ways that two light bulbs can be attached in simple series and in parallel to a battery to make a complete circuit. Explain any differences that will result in the brightness of the bulbs, depending upon the way they are connected to the battery.
3.2.3: Test objects for their conductivity and classify the materials based on whether they conduct electricity (conductors) or do not conduct electricity (insulators). Choose which materials would be used to construct a circuit and justify your choices.
3.2.4: Demonstrate, through writing and drawing, a variety of ways to construct open, closed, simple parallel and series circuits. List the advantages and/or disadvantages of series and parallel circuits.
3.2.5: Use knowledge of electric circuits to explain how a wall switch can be used to "turn on" and "turn off" a ceiling lamp.
3.2.6: Observe diagrams or pictures of a variety of circuits and demonstrate how the switch can be used to open or close the circuit.
3.2.7: Recognize magnetism as a force that attracts or repels a variety of common materials and identify the physical property of materials that makes them attracted to magnets.
3.3: Energy readily transforms from one form to another, but these transformations are not always reversible. The details of these transformations depend upon the initial form of the energy and the properties of the materials involved. Energy may transfer into or out of a system and it may change forms, but the total energy cannot change.
3.3.1: Observe that electricity can be transformed into heat, light, and sound as well as the energy of motion. Explain that electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy from sources such as batteries to devices where it is transformed into heat, light, sound, and the energy of motion.
4: Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal principles of gravitation allow predictions regarding the motions of objects within the Galaxy and beyond. Earth's motion, position, and posture account for a variety of cyclic events observable from Earth. While the composition of planets vary considerably, their components and the applicable laws of science are universal. The motions and interactions of objects within the Solar System are consistent with the hypothesis that it emerged from a large disk of gas and dust. Our Solar System is part of the Milky Way Galaxy, which, in turn, is one of many galaxies in the known Universe.
4.1: There are observable, predictable patterns of movement in the Sun, Earth, and Moon system that account for day/night.
4.1.1: Observe and describe the path of the Sun at it appears to move across the sky from east to west during the course of a day.
Seasons: Earth, Moon, and Sun
4.2: Earth is part of a system that includes other planets.
4.2.1: Identify and order the major planets and describe how they all revolve around the Sun.
5': Earth's dynamic systems are made up of the solid earth (geosphere), the oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers and ice sheets (hydrosphere), the atmosphere, and organisms (biosphere). Interactions among these spheres have resulted in ongoing changes to the system. Some of these changes can be measured on a human time scale, but others occur so slowly, that they must be inferred from geological evidence.
5'.2: Earth's components form systems. These systems continually interact at different rates of time, affecting the Earth locally and globally.
5'.2.1: Create a model that can be used to describe how water moves from one place on Earth to another in a continuous cycle through the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation.
6: The natural world is defined by organisms and life processes which conform to principles regarding conservation and transformation of matter and energy. Living organisms use matter and energy to build their structures and conduct their life processes, have mechanisms and behaviors to regulate their internal environments and to respond to changes in their surroundings. Knowledge about life processes can be applied to improving human health and well being.
6.1: Living systems, from the organismic to the cellular level, demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function.
6.1.2: Observe and identify structures of plants and describe the function of each structure. Explain that most plants produce many seeds, most of which do not germinate and grow into new plants.
6.2: All organisms transfer matter and convert energy from one form to another. Both matter and energy are necessary to build and maintain structures within the organism.
6.2.1: Recognize that plants need light energy from the sun to make food, while animals need to eat plants and/or other animals as their food.
6.3: Organisms respond to internal and external cues, which allow them to survive.
6.3.1: Select a living organism and develop descriptions of how the organism responds to a variety of stimuli (i.e., light/dark, warm temperature/cold temperature) based on multiple observations and data collection (e.g., crayfish and Bess Beatles).
6.3.2: Explain how individual organisms behave and use their structures to respond to internal and external cues such as hunger, drought, or temperature to improve their chances of survival.
7: The natural world consists of a diversity of organisms that transmit their characteristics to future generations. Living things reproduce, develop, and transmit traits, and theories of evolution explain the unity and diversity of species found on Earth. Knowledge of genetics, reproduction, and development is applied to improve agriculture and human health.
7.1: Organisms reproduce, develop, have predictable life cycles, and pass on heritable traits to their offspring.
7.1.1: Compare the similarities and differences of offspring to their parents (e.g. crayfish, bean sprouts). Know that offspring receive characteristics from both parents.
7.1.2: Recognize that some characteristics acquired by the parents are not inherited by the offspring (i.e., a lost claw does not mean offspring are born with only one claw).
7.1.3: Construct the life cycle of a bean plant through the use of diagrams. Describe the plant in different stages of its life cycle from seed, to seedling, to mature plant, to death, and explain how the structures of the plant change over time. Recognize that these stages of the life cycle are predictable and describable.
Correlation last revised: 1/20/2017