2: Materials exist throughout our physical world. The structures of materials influence their physical properties, chemical reactivity and use.
2.1: The structures of materials determine their properties.
2.1.1: Explore evaporation and condensation. Identify the changes of state from liquid to gas in evaporation and gas to liquid in condensation using water as an example.
Phases of Water
2.1.2: Observe and describe changes in the properties of water as it changes from solid to liquid to gas.
Phases of Water
3: The flow of energy drives processes of change in all biological, chemical, physical, and geological systems. Energy stored in a variety of sources can be transformed into other energy forms, which influence many facets of our daily lives. The forms of energy involved and the properties of the materials involved influence the nature of the energy transformations and the mechanisms by which energy is transferred. The conservation of energy is a law that can be used to analyze and build understandings of diverse physical and biological systems.
3.1: Energy takes many forms. These forms can be grouped into types of energy that are associated with the motion of mass (kinetic energy), and types of energy associated with the position of mass and with energy fields (potential energy).
3.1.2: Identify electrical energy as a form of energy that is used to operate many of our machines and tools.
3.2: Changes take place because of the transfer of energy. Energy is transferred to matter through the action of forces. Different forces are responsible for the transfer of the different forms of energy.
3.2.1: Determine the effect of adding heat energy (warming) or removing heat energy (cooling) on the properties of water as it changes state (gas to liquid to solid, and vice versa).
Phases of Water
3.2.2: Investigate and describe what happens when an object at a higher temperature is placed in direct contact with an object at a lower temperature. Record data and use the data to describe which way the heat energy is moving between the objects.
Conduction and Convection
3.2.3: Demonstrate that energy of motion can be transferred from one object to another (e.g., moving air transfers energy to make a pinwheel spin). Give examples of energy transfer from one object to another.
5: Earth's dynamic systems are made up of the solid earth (geosphere), the oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers and ice sheets (hydrosphere), the atmosphere, and organisms (biosphere). Interactions among these spheres have resulted in ongoing changes to the system. Some of these changes can be measured on a human time scale, but others occur so slowly, that they must be inferred from geological evidence.
5.1: Earth's systems can be broken down into individual components which have observable measurable properties.
5.1.3: Sort and group an assortment of minerals based on similarities and differences in their physical properties.
5.1.4: Sort and group minerals based on the physical properties of hardness, color, luster, and reaction to vinegar (weak acid). Use these properties to identify common minerals (quartz, fluorite, calcite, and gypsum).
Correlation last revised: 5/9/2018