4: The student knows how Earth-based and space-based astronomical observations reveal differing theories about the structure, scale, composition, origin, and history of the universe.
4.A: evaluate the evidence concerning the Big Bang model such as red shift and cosmic microwave background radiation and current theories of the evolution of the universe, including estimates for the age of the universe;
Doppler Shift Advanced
4.C: investigate the process by which a supernova can lead to the formation of successive generation stars and planets.
8: The student knows that fossils provide evidence for geological and biological evolution.
8.B: explain how sedimentation, fossilization, and speciation affect the degree of completeness of the fossil record; and
Human Evolution - Skull Analysis
10: The student knows that plate tectonics is the global mechanism for major geologic processes and that heat transfer, governed by the principles of thermodynamics, is the driving force. The student is expected to:
10.A: investigate how new conceptual interpretations of data and innovative geophysical technologies led to the current theory of plate tectonics;
10.C: explain how plate tectonics accounts for geologic processes and features, including sea floor spreading, ocean ridges and rift valleys, subduction zones, earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain ranges, hot spots, and hydrothermal vents;
Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station
10.E: distinguish the location, type, and relative motion of convergent, divergent, and transform plate boundaries using evidence from the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes; and
10.F: evaluate the role of plate tectonics with respect to long-term global changes in Earth's subsystems such as continental buildup, glaciation, sea level fluctuations, mass extinctions, and climate change.
11: The student knows that the geosphere continuously changes over a range of time scales involving dynamic and complex interactions among Earth's subsystems.
11.B: explain how plate tectonics accounts for geologic surface processes and features, including folds, faults, sedimentary basin formation, mountain building, and continental accretion;
11.D: interpret Earth surface features using a variety of methods such as satellite imagery, aerial photography, and topographic and geologic maps using appropriate technologies; and
Building Topographic Maps
Reading Topographic Maps
11.E: evaluate the impact of changes in Earth's subsystems on humans such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, flooding, and storm surges and the impact of humans on Earth's subsystems such as population growth, fossil fuel burning, and use of fresh water.
Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors
12: The student knows that Earth contains energy, water, mineral, and rock resources and that use of these resources impacts Earth's subsystems.
12.B: describe the formation of fossil fuels, including petroleum and coal;
14: The student knows that Earth's global ocean stores solar energy and is a major driving force for weather and climate through complex atmospheric interactions.
14.A: analyze the uneven distribution of solar energy on Earth's surface, including differences in atmospheric transparency, surface albedo, Earth's tilt, duration of insolation, and differences in atmospheric and surface absorption of energy;
Seasons Around the World
15: The student knows that interactions among Earth's five subsystems influence climate and resource availability, which affect Earth's habitability.
15.D: explain the global carbon cycle, including how carbon exists in different forms within the five subsystems and how these forms affect life; and
Correlation last revised: 12/13/2018