#### PH.1: The student will plan and conduct investigations in which

PH.1.a: the components of a system are defined;

PH.1.b: instruments are selected and used to extend observations and measurements of mass, volume, temperature, heat exchange, energy transformations, motion, fields, and electric charge;

PH.1.c: information is recorded and presented in an organized format;

#### PH.2: The student will investigate and understand how to analyze and interpret data. Key concepts include

PH.2.a: a description of a physical problem is translated into a mathematical statement in order to find a solution;

PH.2.b: relationships between physical quantities are determined using the shape of a curve passing through experimentally obtained data;

PH.2.c: the slope of a linear relationship is calculated and includes appropriate units;

#### PH.5: The student will investigate and understand the interrelationships among mass, distance, force, and time through mathematical and experimental processes. Key concepts include

PH.5.b: uniform circular motion;

PH.5.c: projectile motion;

PH.5.d: Newton's laws of motion;

PH.5.e: gravitation;

PH.5.g: work, power, and energy.

#### PH.6: The student will investigate and understand that quantities including mass, energy, momentum, and charge are conserved. Key concepts include

PH.6.a: kinetic and potential energy;

PH.6.b: elastic and inelastic collisions; and

#### PH.7: The student will investigate and understand properties of fluids. Key concepts include

PH.7.a: density and pressure;

PH.7.c: Archimedes' principle of buoyancy;

#### PH.8: The student will investigate and understand that energy can be transferred and transformed to provide usable work. Key concepts include

PH.8.a: transformation of energy among forms, including mechanical, thermal, electrical, gravitational, chemical, and nuclear; and

PH.8.b: efficiency of systems.

#### PH.9: The student will investigate and understand how to use models of transverse and longitudinal waves to interpret wave phenomena. Key concepts include

PH.9.a: wave characteristics (period, wavelength, frequency, amplitude and phase);

PH.9.b: fundamental wave processes (reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, polarization, Doppler effect); and

#### PH.10: The student will investigate and understand that different frequencies and wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum are phenomena ranging from radio waves through visible light to gamma radiation. Key concepts include

PH.10.a: the properties and behaviors of radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays; and

#### PH.11: The student will investigate and understand, in describing optical systems, how light behaves in the fundamental processes of reflection, refraction, and image formation. Key concepts include

PH.11.c: development and use of mirror and lens equations; and

#### PH.12: The student will investigate and understand how to use the field concept to describe the effects of gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces. Key concepts include

PH.12.a: inverse square laws (Newton?s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb?s law); and

#### PH.13: The student will investigate and understand how to diagram and construct basic electrical circuits and explain the function of various circuit components. Key concepts include

PH.13.a: Ohm?s law;

PH.13.b: series, parallel, and combined circuits; and

PH.13.c: circuit components including resistors, batteries, generators, fuses, switches, and capacitors.

#### PH.14: The student will investigate and understand that extremely large and extremely small quantities are not necessarily described by the same laws as those studied in Newtonian physics. Key concepts include

PH.14.a: wave/particle duality;

Correlation last revised: 8/8/2016

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this state's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.