A: Energy and Matter in Chemical Change (Nature of Science Emphasis)

A.1: Science, Technology and Society (STS) and Knowledge

A.1.1: Describe the basic particles that make up the underlying structure of matter, and investigate related technologies

A.1.1.B: outline the role of evidence in the development of the atomic model consisting of protons and neutrons (nucleons) and electrons; i.e., Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr

Bohr Model of Hydrogen
Bohr Model: Introduction

A.1.2: Explain, using the periodic table, how elements combine to form compounds, and follow IUPAC guidelines for naming ionic compounds and simple molecular compounds

A.1.2.E: classify ionic and molecular compounds, acids and bases on the basis of their properties; i.e., conductivity, pH, solubility, state

Covalent Bonds
Ionic Bonds
pH Analysis
pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

A.1.3: Identify and classify chemical changes, and write word and balanced chemical equations for significant chemical reactions, as applications of Lavoisier's law of conservation of mass

A.1.3.B: identify chemical reactions that are significant in societies (e.g., reactions that maintain living systems, such as photosynthesis and respiration; reactions that have an impact on the environment, such as combustion reactions and decomposition of waste materials)

Cell Energy Cycle

A.1.3.C: describe the evidence for chemical changes; i.e., energy change, formation of a gas or precipitate, colour or odour change, change in temperature

Chemical Changes

A.1.3.D: differentiate between endothermic and exothermic chemical reactions (e.g., combustion of gasoline and other natural and synthetic fuels, photosynthesis)

Cell Energy Cycle
Chemical Changes

A.1.3.E: classify and identify categories of chemical reactions; i.e., formation (synthesis), decomposition, hydrocarbon combustion, single replacement, double replacement

Balancing Chemical Equations
Chemical Equations
Dehydration Synthesis
Equilibrium and Concentration

A.1.3.F: translate word equations to balanced chemical equations and vice versa for chemical reactions that occur in living and nonliving systems

Balancing Chemical Equations
Chemical Equations

A.1.3.G: predict the products of formation (synthesis) and decomposition, single and double replacement, and hydrocarbon combustion chemical reactions, when given the reactants

Balancing Chemical Equations
Chemical Equations
Dehydration Synthesis

A.1.3.I: interpret balanced chemical equations in terms of moles of chemical species, and relate the mole concept to the law of conservation of mass

Chemical Equations

A.2: Skills

A.2.1: Initiating and Planning

A.2.1.A: Ask questions about observed relationships, and plan investigations of questions, ideas, problems and issues

A.2.1.A.1: define and delimit problems to facilitate investigation

Pendulum Clock

A.2.1.A.2: design an experiment, identifying and controlling major variables (e.g., design an experiment to differentiate between categories of matter, such as acids, bases and neutral solutions, and identify manipulated and responding variables)

Pendulum Clock
Real-Time Histogram

A.2.1.A.4: evaluate and select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for problem solving, inquiring and decision making (e.g., list appropriate technology for classifying compounds, such as litmus paper or conductivity tester)

Diffusion
Pendulum Clock

A.2.2: Performing and Recording

A.2.2.A: Conduct investigations into relationships between and among observable variables, and use a broad range of tools and techniques to gather and record data and information

A.2.2.A.1: carry out procedures, controlling the major variables and adapting or extending procedures (e.g., when performing an experiment to illustrate conservation of mass, demonstrate an understanding of closed and open systems and control for loss or gain of matter during a chemical change)

Pendulum Clock
Real-Time Histogram

A.2.2.A.5: select and use apparatus, technology and materials safely (e.g., use equipment, such as Bunsen burners, electronic balances, laboratory glassware, electronic probes and calculators correctly and safely)

Triple Beam Balance

A.2.3: Analyzing and Interpreting

A.2.3.A: Analyze data and apply mathematical and conceptual models to develop and assess possible solutions

A.2.3.A.3: compare theoretical and empirical values and account for discrepancies (e.g., measure the mass of a chemical reaction system before and after a change, and account for any discrepancies)

Limiting Reactants

A.2.3.A.4: identify and explain sources of error and uncertainty in measurement, and express results in a form that acknowledges the degree of uncertainty (e.g., measure and record the mass of a material, use significant digits appropriately)

Unit Conversions 2 - Scientific Notation and Significant Digits

A.2.3.A.5: identify new questions or problems that arise from what was learned (e.g., how did ancient peoples discover how to separate metals from their ores?; evaluate the traditional Aboriginal method for determining alkaline properties of substances)

Sight vs. Sound Reactions

B: Energy Flow in Technological Systems (Science and Technology Emphasis)

B.1: Science, Technology and Society (STS) and Knowledge

B.1.1: Analyze and illustrate how technologies based on thermodynamic principles were developed before the laws of thermodynamics were formulated

B.1.1.A: illustrate, by use of examples from natural and technological systems, that energy exists in a variety of forms (e.g., mechanical, chemical, thermal, nuclear, solar)

Energy of a Pendulum

B.1.1.D: analyze and illustrate how the concept of energy developed from observation of heat and mechanical devices (e.g., the investigations of Rumford and Joule; the development of pre-contact First Nations and Inuit technologies based on an understanding of thermal energy and transfer)

Energy Conversion in a System
Energy of a Pendulum
Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
Roller Coaster Physics

B.1.2: Explain and apply concepts used in theoretical and practical measures of energy in mechanical systems

B.1.2.A: describe evidence for the presence of energy; i.e., observable physical and chemical changes, and changes in motion, shape or temperature

Chemical Changes
Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

B.1.2.B: define kinetic energy as energy due to motion, and define potential energy as energy due to relative position or condition

Energy of a Pendulum
Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
Roller Coaster Physics

B.1.2.D: define, compare and contrast scalar and vector quantities

Vectors

B.1.2.E: describe displacement and velocity quantitatively

Golf Range
Shoot the Monkey

B.1.2.F: define acceleration, quantitatively, as a change in velocity during a time interval: a = delta v/delta t

Free-Fall Laboratory
Golf Range
Shoot the Monkey

B.1.2.G: explain that, in the absence of resistive forces, motion at constant speed requires no energy input

Fan Cart Physics

B.1.2.H: recall, from previous studies, the operational definition for force as a push or a pull, and for work as energy expended when the speed of an object is increased, or when an object is moved against the influence of an opposing force

Pulley Lab

B.1.2.I: define gravitational potential energy as the work against gravity

Energy of a Pendulum
Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
Potential Energy on Shelves
Pulley Lab
Roller Coaster Physics

B.1.2.J: relate gravitational potential energy to work done using Ep = mgh and W = Fd and show that a change in energy is equal to work done on a system: delta E =W

Pulley Lab

B.1.2.K: quantify kinetic energy using Ek = 1/2 mv² and relate this concept to energy conservation in transformations (e.g., for an object falling a distance "h" from rest: mgh = Fd = 1/2 mv²)

Air Track
Energy Conversion in a System
Energy of a Pendulum
Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects
Roller Coaster Physics

B.1.2.L: derive the SI unit of energy and work, the joule, from fundamental units

Pulley Lab

B.1.2.M: investigate and analyze one-dimensional scalar motion and work done on an object or system, using algebraic and graphical techniques (e.g., the relationships among distance, time and velocity; determining the area under the line in a force-distance graph)

Free-Fall Laboratory
Pulley Lab

B.1.3: Apply the principles of energy conservation and thermodynamics to investigate, describe and predict efficiency of energy transformation in technological systems

B.1.3.A: describe, qualitatively and in terms of thermodynamic laws, the energy transformations occurring in devices and systems (e.g., automobile, bicycle coming to a stop, thermal power plant, food chain, refrigerator, heat pump, permafrost storage pits for food)

Energy Conversion in a System

B.1.3.B: describe how the first and second laws of thermodynamics have changed our understanding of energy conversions (e.g., why heat engines are not 100% efficient)

Energy Conversion in a System

B.1.3.D: recognize that there are limits to the amount of "useful" energy that can be derived from the conversion of potential energy to other forms in a technological device (e.g., when the potential energy of gasoline is converted to kinetic energy in an automobile engine, some is also converted to heat; when electrical energy is converted to light energy in a light bulb, some is also converted to heat)

Energy Conversion in a System
Energy of a Pendulum
Inclined Plane - Sliding Objects

B.1.3.E: explain, quantitatively, efficiency as a measure of the "useful" work compared to the total energy put into an energy conversion process or device

Pulley Lab

B.1.3.F: apply concepts related to efficiency of thermal energy conversion to analyze the design of a thermal device (e.g., heat pump, high efficiency furnace, automobile engine)

Energy Conversion in a System

B.2: Skills

B.2.1: Initiating and Planning

B.2.1.A: Ask questions about observed relationships, and plan investigations of questions, ideas, problems and issues

B.2.1.A.1: design an experiment, identifying and controlling major variables (e.g., design an experiment involving a combustion reaction to demonstrate the conversion of chemical potential energy to thermal energy)

Pendulum Clock
Real-Time Histogram

B.2.1.A.2: formulate operational definitions of major variables (e.g., predict or hypothesize the conversion of energy from potential form to kinetic form, in an experiment using a pendulum or free fall)

Pendulum Clock

B.2.2: Performing and Recording

B.2.2.A: Conduct investigations into relationships between and among observable variables, and use a broad range of tools and techniques to gather and record data and information

B.2.2.A.1: carry out procedures, controlling the major variables and adapting or extending procedures (e.g., perform an experiment to demonstrate the equivalency of work done on an object and the resulting kinetic energy; design a device that converts mechanical energy into thermal energy)

Diffusion
Pendulum Clock
Real-Time Histogram
Sight vs. Sound Reactions

B.2.2.A.2: compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of the data (e.g., use a computer-based laboratory to compile and organize data from an experiment to demonstrate the equivalency of work done on an object and the resulting kinetic energy)

Identifying Nutrients

B.2.3: Analyzing and Interpreting

B.2.3.A: Analyze data and apply mathematical and conceptual models to develop and assess possible solutions

B.2.3.A.1: compile and display evidence and information, by hand or using technology, in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, graphs and scatterplots (e.g., plot distance-time, velocity-time and force-distance graphs; manipulate and present data through the selection of appropriate tools, such as scientific instrumentation, calculators, databases or spreadsheets)

Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station

B.2.3.A.3: interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer or calculate linear and nonlinear relationships among variables (e.g., interpret a graph of changing kinetic and potential energy from a pendulum during one-half of a period of oscillation; calculate the slope of the line in a distance-time graph; analyze a simple velocity-time graph to describe acceleration; calculate the area under the line in a force-distance graph)

Pendulum Clock

B.2.3.A.6: construct and test a prototype of a device or system, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (e.g., design and build an energy conversion device)

Diffusion
Pendulum Clock

B.3: Attitudes

B.3.5: Stewardship

B.3.5.A: Demonstrate sensitivity and responsibility in pursuing a balance between the needs of humans and a sustainable environment (e.g., recognize that their choices and actions, and the choices and actions that technologists make, can have an impact on others and on the environment)

Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors

C: Cycling of Matter in Living Systems (Nature of Science Emphasis)

C.1: Science, Technology and Society (STS) and Knowledge

C.1.2: Describe the function of cell organelles and structures in a cell, in terms of life processes, and use models to explain these processes and their applications

C.1.2.A: compare passive transport of matter by diffusion and osmosis with active transport in terms of the particle model of matter, concentration gradients, equilibrium and protein carrier molecules (e.g., particle model of matter and fluid-mosaic model)

Osmosis

C.1.2.B: use models to explain and visualize complex processes like diffusion and osmosis, endo- and exocytosis, and the role of cell membrane in these processes

Osmosis

C.1.2.D: identify the structure and describe, in general terms, the function of the cell membrane, nucleus, lysosome, vacuole, mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, ribosomes, chloroplast and cell wall, where present, of plant and animal cells

Cell Energy Cycle
Paramecium Homeostasis
RNA and Protein Synthesis

C.1.3: Analyze plants as an example of a multicellular organism with specialized structures at the cellular, tissue and system levels

C.1.3.B: describe how the cells of the leaf system have a variety of specialized structures and functions; i.e., epidermis including guard cells, palisade tissue cells, spongy tissue cells, and phloem and xylem vascular tissue cells to support the process of photosynthesis

Cell Energy Cycle

C.1.3.C: explain and investigate the transport system in plants; i.e., xylem and phloem tissues and the processes of transpiration, including the cohesion and adhesion properties of water, turgor pressure and osmosis; diffusion, active transport and root pressure in root hairs

Osmosis

C.2: Skills

C.2.1: Initiating and Planning

C.2.1.A: Ask questions about observed relationships, and plan investigations of questions, ideas, problems and issues

C.2.1.A.1: define and delimit problems to facilitate investigation (e.g., how do plants adjust to accommodate different environmental conditions such as varying levels of light and fertilizer)

Pendulum Clock

C.2.1.A.2: design an experiment, identifying and controlling major variables (e.g., design an investigation to determine the effect of CO2(g) concentration on the number of chloroplasts found in an aquatic plant cell)

Pendulum Clock
Real-Time Histogram

C.2.2: Performing and Recording

C.2.2.A: Conduct investigations into relationships between and among observable variables, and use a broad range of tools and techniques to gather and record data and information

C.2.2.A.1: carry out procedures, controlling the major variables and adapting or extending procedures (e.g., perform an experiment to determine the effect of tonicity on plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in plant cells, such as staminal hairs or aquatic leaf cells, identify variables that do affect plasmolysis, such as the amount of light and heat, and control these variables)

Diffusion
Pendulum Clock
Real-Time Histogram

C.2.2.A.2: use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data (e.g., use a microscope to observe movement of water in plants; prepare wet mounts of tissue from flowering plants, and observe cellular structures specific to plant and animal cells; stain cells to make them visible)

Triple Beam Balance

C.2.2.A.4: compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of the data (e.g., organize data obtained from measuring daily temperature and bloom dates of plant species, such as aspen, poplar, common purple lilac and crocus to determine a relationship between the two variables)

Identifying Nutrients

C.2.3: Analyzing and Interpreting

C.2.3.A: Analyze data and apply mathematical and conceptual models to develop and assess possible solutions

C.2.3.A.1: compile and display, by hand or computer, evidence and information in a variety of formats, including diagrams, flow charts, tables, graphs and scatterplots (e.g., collect data on the number of stomata per unit area on various plant leaves that grow in areas of differing humidity, and compile this data in a spreadsheet and graph it to determine whether there is a relationship between the variables)

Earthquakes 1 - Recording Station

C.2.3.A.5: construct and test a prototype of a device or system, and troubleshoot problems as they arise (e.g., create a model of a cell to illustrate a certain function, for example, use a balloon and tape to represent a guard cell)

Diffusion
Pendulum Clock

C.2.4: Communication and Teamwork

C.2.4.A: Work as members of a team in addressing problems, and apply the skills and conventions of science in communicating information and ideas and in assessing results

C.2.4.A.1: communicate questions, ideas and intentions; and receive, interpret, understand, support and respond to the ideas of others (e.g., describe cytoplasmic streaming in a single-celled organism, and communicate an inference about similar movement in the cells of a multicellular organism)

Sight vs. Sound Reactions

C.3: Attitudes

C.3.5: Stewardship

C.3.5.A: Demonstrate sensitivity and responsibility in pursuing a balance between the needs of humans and a sustainable environment (e.g., show care and respect for all forms of life; evaluate the impact on the environment of personal choices, as well as the choices scientists make when carrying out an investigation)

Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors

D: Energy Flow in Global Systems (Social and Environmental Contexts Emphasis)

D.1: Science, Technology and Society (STS) and Knowledge

D.1.1: Describe how the relationships among input solar energy, output terrestrial energy and energy flow within the biosphere affect the lives of humans and other species

D.1.1.D: describe the major characteristics of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the lithosphere, and explain their relationship to Earth's biosphere

Carbon Cycle

D.1.1.E: describe and explain the greenhouse effect, and the role of various gases-including methane, carbon dioxide and water vapour-in determining the scope of the greenhouse effect

Carbon Cycle
Greenhouse Effect - Metric

D.1.2: Analyze the relationships among net solar energy, global energy transfer processes-primarily radiation, convection and hydrologic cycle-and climate.

D.1.2.B: investigate and describe, in general terms, the relationships among solar energy reaching Earth's surface and time of year, angle of inclination, length of daylight, cloud cover, albedo effect and aerosol or particulate distribution

Seasons Around the World
Seasons in 3D
Seasons: Why do we have them?

D.1.2.E: investigate and explain how evaporation, condensation, freezing and melting transfer thermal energy; i.e., use simple calculations of heat of fusion Hfus= Q/n and vaporization Hvap= Q/n, and Q=mc delta t to convey amounts of thermal energy involved, and link these processes to the hydrologic cycle

Calorimetry Lab
Phase Changes

D.1.4: Investigate and interpret the role of environmental factors on global energy transfer and climate change

D.1.4.A: investigate and identify human actions affecting biomes that have a potential to change climate (e.g., emission of greenhouse gases, draining of wetlands, forest fires, deforestation) and critically examine the evidence that these factors play a role in climate change (e.g., global warming, rising sea level(s))

Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors
Coral Reefs 2 - Biotic Factors

D.2: Skills

D.2.1: Initiating and Planning

D.2.1.A: Ask questions about observed relationships, and plan investigations of questions, ideas, problems and issues

D.2.1.A.1: identify questions to investigate that arise from practical problems and issues (e.g., develop questions related to climate change, such as "How will global warming affect Canada's northern biomes?"; "How will a species be affected by an increase or decrease in average temperature?"

Pendulum Clock
Sight vs. Sound Reactions

D.2.1.A.2: design an experiment, and identify specific variables (e.g., investigate the heating effect of solar energy, using variables, such as temperature, efficiency and materials used)

Pendulum Clock
Real-Time Histogram

D.2.1.A.3: formulate operational definitions of major variables (e.g., define heat of fusion or vaporization as the quantity of energy to change the state of one mole of matter at its melting or boiling point in the absence of temperature change)

Calorimetry Lab
Pendulum Clock
Phase Changes
Real-Time Histogram
Sight vs. Sound Reactions

D.2.2: Performing and Recording

D.2.2.A: Conduct investigations into relationships between and among observable variables, and use a broad range of tools and techniques to gather and record data and information

D.2.2.A.1: carry out procedures, controlling the major variables and adapting or extending procedures where required (e.g., perform an experiment to determine the ability of various materials to absorb or reflect solar energy)

Diffusion
Pendulum Clock
Real-Time Histogram
Sight vs. Sound Reactions

D.2.2.A.2: use instruments, effectively and accurately, to collect data (e.g., use a barometer, rain gauge, thermometer, anemometer)

Triple Beam Balance

D.2.2.A.3: compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of the data (e.g., organize data to prepare climatographs for comparing biomes)

Identifying Nutrients

D.2.3: Analyzing and Interpreting

D.2.3.A: Analyze data and apply mathematical and conceptual models to develop and assess possible solutions

D.2.3.A.3: interpret patterns and trends in data, and infer or calculate linear and nonlinear relationships among variables (e.g., analyze a graph of mean monthly temperatures for cities that are at similar latitudes but have different climates)

Pendulum Clock

D.3: Attitudes

D.3.5: Stewardship

D.3.5.A: Demonstrate sensitivity and responsibility in pursuing a balance between the needs of humans and a sustainable environment (e.g., recognize that human actions today may affect the sustainability of biomes for future generations; identify, without bias, potential conflicts between responding to human wants and needs and protecting the environment)

Coral Reefs 1 - Abiotic Factors

Correlation last revised: 9/24/2019

This correlation lists the recommended Gizmos for this province's curriculum standards. Click any Gizmo title below for more information.