Standards for Teaching and Learning
6.3.1: Recognize that the solar system consists of the Earth, moon, sun, eight generally recognized other planets that orbit the sun and their satellites, and smaller objects, such as asteroids and comets.
6.3.2: Describe how the planets move around the sun in elliptical orbits; and the near-coplanarity of the orbits, along with the principle of conservation of momentum, is evidence essential to our understanding of how the solar system was originally formed.
6.3.3: Explain that the moon is Earth's only natural satellite, but several of the other planets have natural satellites as well. Understand Earth also has many artificial satellites and that all of these satellites, artificial and natural, are in elliptical orbits around their primaries.
6.3.6: Construct models or drawings to explain that the seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth's axis relative to the plane of its orbit and its revolution around the sun. Explain how this results in uneven heating of the various parts of Earth's surface that varies over the course of the year.
6.3.7: Describe that as spring turns to summer at a particular place on Earth, the days grow longer and the sun moves higher in the sky, resulting in more intense heating. In fall and winter, the opposite occurs. Explain how this variation in heating results in the seasons.
6.3.10: Explain that gravity is a force of attraction that every mass in the universe exerts on every other mass, and everything on or anywhere near Earth is pulled toward Earth's center by a gravitational force.
6.3.11: Describe that the sun's gravitational attraction holds Earth and the other planets in their orbits, just as the planets' gravitational attraction keeps their moons in orbit around them.
6.4.1: Explain the meaning of radiation, convection, and conduction (three mechanisms by which heat is transferred to, through, and out of the Earth's system).
6.4.2: Describe that the heat from the sun falls on Earth unevenly because of its spherical shape. Describe that regions close to the equator receive more concentrated solar energy than those closer to the poles.
6.5.1: Explain how different regions receive different amounts of solar heating because of their latitude, clouds, surface water ice, and other variables. Understand that this results in large-scale convective air flow and weather patterns.
6.5.2: Recognize and describe that the currents in the air and ocean distribute heat energy.
6.5.3: Explain that a great deal of heat energy is absorbed when water evaporates and is released when it condenses. Illustrate that this cycling of water and heat in and out of the atmosphere plays a critical role in climatic patterns.
6.5.4: Explain how mountain ranges and other major geographical features affect the climate (e.g., mountains produce rain shadows, land masses interrupt ocean currents).
6.6.2: Recognize that fresh water is a resource that can be depleted or polluted, making it unavailable or unsuitable for humans.
6.6.8: Explain the important role of the water cycle within a watershed.
6.7.1: Recognize minerals are naturally occurring crystalline solids with definite chemical compositions and identify common minerals using a key to their diagnostic properties.)
6.7.3: Describe how igneous rocks are formed when older rocks are melted and then recrystallized. Understand they may be cooled deep in the Earth or at or near the surface as part of volcanic systems.
6.7.4: Explain how metamorphic rocks are formed when older rocks are heated (short of melting) and/or subjected to increased pressure.
6.7.5: Describe how sedimentary rocks are formed when older rocks are subjected to weathering into sediments, and those sediments are eroded, transported, deposited, then compacted and cemented.
6.7.6: Observe and describe common igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, including granite, obsidian, pumice (igneous), slate, schist, marble (metamorphic), sandstone, shale, and limestone (sedimentary).
6.8.1: Describe the solid lithosphere of Earth, including both the continents and the ocean basins, and how it is broken into several plates that ride on a denser, hot, and gradually deformable layer in the mantle called the asthenosphere (weak sphere).
6.8.3: Explain how lithosphere plates move very slowly, pressing against one another in some places, pulling apart in other places, and sliding past one another in others.
6.8.4: Compare and contrast oceanic plates and continental plates.
6.8.5: Explain the process in which plates push against one another, one of them may be dense enough to sink under the other, a process called subduction. Explain that oceanic lithosphere may sink under continental or oceanic lithosphere, but continental lithosphere does not subduct.
6.8.7: Explain when plates push against each other and neither is dense enough to subduct (both continental), the plates will crumple and fold and form large mountain chains.
6.8.8: Explain that earthquakes are sudden motions along breaks in the crust called faults, and volcanoes/fissures are locations where magma reaches the surface as lava.
6.8.9: Describe how earthquakes and volcanoes often, but not always, occur along the boundaries between plates.
6.8.11: Explain how volcanic activity along the ocean floor may form undersea mountains, which can grow above the ocean's surface to become islands (e.g., the Hawaiian Islands).
6.9.1: Explain how the Earth's surface is built up and broken down by natural processes, including deposition of sediments, rock formation, erosion, and weathering.
6.9.3: Explain that although weathered rock is the basic component of soil, the composition and texture of soil and its fertility and resistance to erosion are greatly influenced by plant roots and debris, bacteria, fungi, worms, insects, and other organisms.
6.9.6: Recognize that evidence from geologic layers and radioactive dating indicates that Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old and life on this planet has existed for more than 3 billion years.
Correlation last revised: 1/21/2017