Program of Studies
1.1.1: appreciate the need for computational competence in quantifying conservation of energy and momentum
1.1.2: accept uncertainty in the descriptions and explanations of conservation in the physical world
1.1.4: appreciate the fundamental role the principles of conservation play in our everyday world
1.1.5: appreciate the need for simplicity in scientific explanations of complex physical interactions and the role conservation laws play in many of these explanations
1.1.6: appreciate the need for accurate and honest communication of all evidence gathered in the course of an investigation related to conservation principles
1.1.7: appreciate the need for empirical evidence in interpreting observed conservation phenomena
1.1.1.A: mechanical energy interactions involve changes in kinetic and potential energy, by extending energy concepts from Science 10, Unit 4, and the mechanical energy concepts and problem-solving methods studied in Physics 20, Unit 1, and by:
1.1.1.A.1: describing energy and mass as scalar quantities
1.1.1.A.3: defining mechanical energy as the sum of kinetic and potential energy
1.1.1.A.4: solving conservation problems, using algebraic and/or graphical analysis
1.1.1.A.5: analyzing and solving, quantitatively, kinematics and dynamics problems, using mechanical energy conservation concepts by extending previous problem-solving methods.
1.1.2.A: designing and performing experiments demonstrating the law of conservation of energy, and the relationship between kinetic and mechanical potential energy
1.1.2.B: using free-body diagrams (force diagrams) in organizing and communicating the solutions of conservation problems
1.1.3: be open-minded in evaluating potential applications of conservation principles to new technology
1.1.3.A: understanding that changes in kinetic and potential energy occur in mechanical energy interactions; and analyzing and solving, quantitatively, kinematic and dynamics problems, using mechanical energy concepts, and algebraic and/or graphical analyses; and by gathering, and graphically analyzing, relevant data inferring mathematical relationships, within the context of:
1.1.3.A.1: investigating and reporting the application of conservation principles in research and design
1.1.3.A.2: any other relevant context.
1.2.1.A: conservation laws provide a simple means to explain interactions among objects, by:
1.2.1.A.1: describing momentum as a vector quantity
1.2.1.A.2: defining momentum as a quantity of motion equal to the product of the mass and the velocity of an object
1.2.1.A.3: relating Newton's laws of motion, quantitatively, to explain the concepts of impulse and a change in momentum
1.2.1.A.4: explaining, quantitatively, using vectors, that momentum appears to be conserved during one- and two-dimensional interactions in one plane among objects (the sine and cosine rules are not required)
1.2.1.A.5: defining, comparing and contrasting elastic and inelastic collisions, using quantitative examples
1.2.2.A: performing and analyzing experiments demonstrating the conservation of momentum and the principle of impulse
1.2.2.B: approximating, estimating and predicting results of interactions, based on an understanding of the conservation laws.
1.2.3: STS Connections
1.2.3.A: understanding that the law of conservation of momentum provides a means to explain interactions among objects; and explaining, quantitatively, using vectors and one- and twodimensional interactions in one plane; and by obtaining and analyzing empirical evidence to demonstrate the conservation of momentum, and estimating and predicting results of interactions, within the context of:
1.2.3.A.1: assessing the role conservation laws and the principle of impulse play in the design and use of injury prevention devices in vehicles and sports; e.g., air bags, child restraint systems, running shoes, helmets
1.2.3.A.5: any other relevant context.
2.1.6: foster a responsible attitude to environmental and social change as related to the use and production of electrical energy
2.1.1: appreciate the need for computational competence in quantifying electrical interactions
2.1.1.A: the electrical model of matter is fundamental to the explanation of electrical interactions, by extending from Physics 20, Unit 1, and by:
2.1.1.A.1: describing matter as containing discrete positive and negative particles
2.1.1.A.3: explaining electrical interactions in terms of the law of electric charge (two types of charge: like charges repel, unlike charges attract)
2.2.1.A: Coulomb's law explains the relationships among force, charge and separating distance, by:
2.2.1.A.1: explaining, qualitatively, the principles pertinent to Coulomb's torsion balance experiment
2.2.1.A.2: explaining, quantitatively, using Coulomb's law and vectors, the electrostatic interaction between discrete point charges
2.2.1.A.3: comparing the inverse square relationship as it is expressed by Coulomb's law and Newton's universal law of gravitation.
2.2.3: STS Connections
2.2.3.A: understanding that the relationships among force, charge and separating distance is explained by Coulomb's law; and explaining, quantitatively, using Coulomb's law and vectors, the electrostatic interaction between discrete point charges; and by gathering and analyzing relevant data inferring the mathematical relationships among force, charge and separating distance, within the context of:
2.2.3.A.1: comparing and contrasting the experimental designs used by Coulomb and Cavendish, in terms of the role of technology in advancing science
2.2.3.A.2: any other relevant context.
2.3.1.A: the concept of field is applied to electric interactions, by extending from Physics 20, Unit 2, the definition of field, and by:
2.3.1.A.5: predicting, using algebraic and/or graphical methods, the path followed by a moving electric charge in a uniform electric field, using kinematics and dynamics concepts
2.4.1.A: Ohm's law and Kirchhoff 's rules are fundamental to explaining simple electric circuits, by:
2.4.1.A.1: defining current, potential difference, resistance and power, using appropriate terminology
2.4.1.A.2: defining the ampere as a fundamental SI unit, and relating the coulomb and second to it
2.4.1.A.4: explaining Ohm's law as an empirical, rather than a theoretical, relationship
2.4.1.A.5: quantifying electrical energy and power dissipated in a resistor, using Ohm's law
2.4.1.A.7: analyzing, quantitatively, simple series and/or parallel DC circuits in terms of the variables of potential difference, current and resistance, using Kirchhoff 's rules and/or Ohm's law (solutions requiring Kirchhoff 's rules to be limited to networks containing two power supplies and three branch currents).
2.4.2.A: determining, from empirical and theoretical evidence, the relationships among electric energy/power, current, resistance and voltage
2.4.2.B: performing an experiment to explain the relationships among current, voltage and resistance
2.4.2.C: designing, analyzing and solving simple resistive DC circuits
2.4.2.D: drawing diagrams of simple resistive DC circuits, using accepted symbols for circuit components
2.4.2.E: designing and performing an experiment demonstrating the heating effect of electric energy.
2.4.3: STS Connections
2.4.3.A: understanding and analyzing, quantitatively, simple series and parallel circuits in terms of Ohm's law and Kirchhoff 's rules; and quantifying electrical energy and power dissipated in a resistor, using Ohm's law; and by determining, from empirical and theoretical evidence the relationships among electric energy/power, current, resistance and voltage, within the context of:
2.4.3.A.2: comparing and contrasting electrical energy with other energy sources with respect to such factors as cost, energy potential, risks and benefits to society, safety concerns and their impact on the quality of life of future generations
2.4.3.A.3: analyzing the use of series and parallel networks in household circuits in terms of the problems addressed
2.4.3.A.4: investigating the need for and the functioning of circuit breakers in household circuits
2.4.3.A.7: any other relevant context.
3.2.1.A: magnetic forces and fields are described in relation to electric currents, by extending electromagnetic concepts from Science 9, Unit 4, and by:
3.2.1.A.10: discussing, qualitatively, Lenz's law in terms of conservation of energy; describing, giving examples, situations where Lenz's law applies.
3.3.1.A: Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism expanded on Oersted's and Faraday's generalizations, by:
3.3.1.A.2: comparing and contrasting the constituents of the electromagnetic spectrum on the basis of frequency, wavelength and energy
3.3.1.A.3: solving problems algebraically, using the relationships among speed, wavelength, frequency, period and/or distance, of electromagnetic waves
3.3.2.B: predicting the conditions required for electromagnetic radiation emission.
4.1.3: STS Connections
4.1.3.A: understanding and explaining how technological advances and experimental evidence contributed to the formulation of models of the atom; and by determining the charge to mass ratio of the electron, and the mass of an electron and/or ion, given appropriate empirical data, within the context of:
4.1.3.A.3: any other relevant context.
4.2.1.A: the quantum concept is required to explain adequately some natural phenomena, by extending from Physics 20, Unit 4, and by:
4.2.1.A.2: defining the photon as a quantum of electromagnetic radiation
4.2.1.A.3: describing how Hertz discovered the photoelectric effect while investigating electromagnetic waves
4.2.1.A.4: explaining the photoelectric effect in terms of the intensity and wavelength of the incident light and surface material
4.2.1.A.5: assessing the assumptions made by Einstein in explaining the photoelectric effect
4.2.1.A.6: defining threshold frequency as the minimum frequency giving rise to the photoelectric effect; and work function as the energy binding an electron to a photoelectric surface
4.2.1.A.7: explaining the relationship between the kinetic energy of a photoelectron and stopping voltage
4.2.1.A.9: describing the photoelectric effect as a phenomenon that supports the notion of the wave-particle duality of electromagnetic radiation
4.2.1.A.10: explaining X-ray production as an inverse photoelectric effect, and predicting, quantitatively, the short wavelength limit of X-rays produced, given appropriate data
4.2.1.A.11: explaining, qualitatively, the Compton effect and the de Broglie hypothesis applying the laws of mechanics, conservation of momentum and energy, to photons, as another example of wave-particle duality.
4.2.2.A: performing an experiment demonstrating the photoelectric effect and interpreting the data obtained
4.2.2.B: predicting and verifying the effect that changing the intensity and/or frequency of the incident radiation or the material of the photocathode has on photoelectric emission.
4.2.3: STS Connections
4.2.3.A: understanding that an adequate explanation of some natural phenomena requires the quantum concept; and describing the photoelectric effect as evidence for the notion of wave-particle duality of electromagnetic radiation; and by investigating, empirically, the photoelectric effect, within the context of:
4.2.3.A.1: analyzing, in general terms, the functioning of various technological applications of the photoelectric effect to solve practical problems; e.g., automatic door openers, burglar alarms, light meters, smoke detectors
4.2.3.A.2: discussing why the photoelectric effect could not be explained, using the wave model of electromagnetic radiation, and thus required a new hypothesis
4.2.3.A.4: any other relevant context.
4.3.1.A: the processes of nuclear fission and fusion are nature's most powerful energy sources, by:
4.3.1.A.1: using the isotope notation to describe and identify common nuclear isotopes, and determine the number of each nucleon of an atom
4.3.1.A.2: describing the nature and behaviour of alpha, beta and gamma radiation
4.3.1.A.3: writing nuclear equations for alpha and beta decay
4.3.1.A.4: performing simple, nonlogarithmic, half-life calculations
4.3.1.A.5: predicting the particles emitted by a nucleus from the examination of representative transmutation equations
4.3.1.A.9: relating, qualitatively, the mass defect of the nucleus to the energy released in nuclear reactions.
4.3.2.C: graphing data for radioactive decay and interpolating values for half-life
4.3.2.D: interpreting some common nuclear decay chains
4.3.3: STS Connections
4.3.3.A: understanding that the processes of nuclear fission and fusion are nature's most powerful energy sources; and describing the nature of particle radiation and nuclear decay, and explaining, qualitatively, the importance of the concept of mass-energy equivalence in nuclear reaction processes; and by analyzing empirical nuclear decay data, and performing a risk/benefit analysis of a nuclear energy application, within the context of:
4.3.3.A.6: any other relevant context.
4.4.1.A: the Rutherford-Bohr model of the atom represents a synthesis of classical and quantum concepts, by:
4.4.1.A.1: explaining, qualitatively, the significance of the results of Rutherford's scattering experiment in terms of the nature and role of the nucleons; and the size and mass of the nucleus and the atom, which lead to the proposal of a planetary model of the atom
4.4.1.A.2: explaining why Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism predicts the failure of a planetary model of the atom
4.4.1.A.3: describing why each element has a unique line spectrum, and comparing and contrasting the characteristics of continuous and line spectra
4.4.1.A.4: explaining, qualitatively, the conditions necessary to produce line emission and line absorption spectra
4.4.1.A.5: explaining the quantum implications of the line absorption and the line emission spectra, and determining any variable in the Balmer equation 1/l = RH (1/nf2 -1/ni2)
4.4.1.A.6: explaining Bohr's concept of "stationary states" and their relationship to line spectra of atoms; and using the frequency/wavelength of an emitted photon to determine the energy difference between states
4.4.1.A.7: explaining the relationship between hydrogen's absorption spectrum and its energy levels
4.4.1.A.8: describing how the Bohr atom can be used to predict the ionization energy of hydrogen, and to calculate the allowed radii of the hydrogen atom
4.4.1.A.9: describing how the Rutherford-Bohr model has been further refined, by applying quantum concepts to a purely mathematical model based on probability and waves
4.4.1.A.10: comparing and contrasting, qualitatively, the Rutherford, the Bohr and the quantum model of the atom.
4.4.2.A: observing representative line spectra of selected elements
4.4.2.B: predicting the conditions necessary to produce and observe line emission and line absorption spectra
4.4.2.C: predicting the potential energy transitions in the hydrogen atom, using a labelled diagram showing the energy levels.
4.4.3: STS Connections
4.4.3.A: understanding that the Rutherford-Bohr model offers a restricted explanation of the structure of the atom, and that a mathematical model provides a fuller explanation of the empirical evidence of energy levels within the atom; and by observing line spectra and predicting potential energy transition in an atom, within the context of:
4.4.3.A.1: investigating and reporting on the use of line spectra in the study of the Universe and the identification of substances
4.4.3.A.2: describing the functioning of lasers in terms of energy level transitions and resonance
4.4.3.A.3: investigating and reporting on the application of spectra concepts in the design and functioning of lighting devices; e.g., street lights, signs
4.4.3.A.5: investigating and reporting on the contributions made by scientists to the development of the early quantum theory; e.g., Hertz, Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Compton, Davisson, Germer
4.4.3.A.6: any other relevant context.
Correlation last revised: 2/26/2010