Chemical reactions

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    Balancing Chemical Equations

    Attempt to balance specific types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, single replacement, and double replacement. While balancing the reactions, the number of atoms on each side is presented as visual, histogram, and numerical data.

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    Chemical Equations

    Practice balancing chemical equations by changing the coefficients of reactants and products. As the equation is manipulated, the amount of each element is shown as individual atoms, histograms, or numerically. Molar masses of reactants and products can also be calculated and balanced to demonstrate conservation of mass.

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    Colligative Properties

    Determine how the physical properties of a solvent are dependent on the number of solute particles present. Measure the vapor pressure, boiling point, freezing point, and osmotic pressure of pure water and a variety of solutions. Compare the effects of four solutes (sucrose, sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and potassium chloride) on these physical properties.

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    Collision Theory

    Observe a chemical reaction with and without a catalyst. Determine the effects of concentration, temperature, surface area, and catalysts on reaction rates. Reactant and product concentrations through time are recorded, and the speed of the simulation can be adjusted by the user.

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    Dehydration Synthesis

    Build a glucose molecule, atom-by-atom, to learn about chemical bonds and the structure of glucose. Explore the processes of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis in carbohydrate molecules.

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    Equilibrium and Concentration

    Observe how reactants and products interact in reversible reactions. The initial amount of each substance can be manipulated, as well as the pressure on the chamber. The amounts, concentrations, and partial pressures of each reactant and product can be tracked over time as the reaction proceeds toward equilibrium.

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    Equilibrium and Pressure

    Observe how reactants and products interact in reversible reactions. The amounts of each substance can be manipulated, as well as the pressure on the chamber. This lesson focuses on partial pressures, Dalton's law, and Le Chatelier's principle.

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    Limiting Reactants

    Explore the concepts of limiting reactants, excess reactants, and theoretical yield in a chemical reaction. Select one of two different reactions, choose the number of molecules of each reactant, and then observe the products created and the reactants left over.

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    Mystery Powder Analysis

    Perform multiple experiments using several common powders such as corn starch, baking powder, baking soda, salt, and gelatin. The results of the research on the known powders can then be used to analyze several unknowns using the scientific method. The unknowns can be a single powder or a combination of the known powders.

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    pH Analysis

    Test the acidity of common substances using pH paper. Materials including soap, lemon juice, milk, and oven cleaner can be tested by comparing the color of pH strips to a standard scale.

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    pH Analysis: Quad Color Indicator

    Test the acidity of many common everyday substances using pH paper (four color indicators). Materials including soap, lemon juice, milk, and oven cleaner can be tested by comparing the color of the pH strips to the calibrated scale.

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    Stoichiometry

    Solve problems in chemistry using dimensional analysis. Select appropriate tiles so that units in the question are converted into units of the answer. Tiles can be flipped, and answers can be calculated once the appropriate unit conversions have been applied.

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    Titration

    Measure the quantity of a known solution needed to neutralize an acid or base of unknown concentration. Use this information to calculate the unknown concentration. A variety of indicators can be used to show the pH of the solution.

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