### Earth's surface and interior

• #### Building Topographic Maps

Build a topographic map by flooding a three dimensional landscape with water and drawing contour lines. Draw a profile of a landscape based on the topographic map.

• #### Earthquake - Determination of Epicenter

Using multiple earthquake recording stations, determine the epicenter of an earthquake by analyzing the arrival of the primary and secondary seismic waves at each recording station. Real-time charts are generated, providing data that allows for the triangulation of the epicenter.

• #### Earthquake - Recording Station

Using an earthquake recording station, learn how to determine the distance between the station and an earthquake based on the time difference between the arrival of the primary and secondary seismic waves. A real-time recording chart is generated, and the times between the waves can be measured.

• #### Plate Tectonics

Move the Earth's crust at various locations to observe the effects of the motion of the tectonic plates, including volcanic eruptions. Information about each of the major types of plate boundaries is shown, along with their locations on Earth.

• #### Porosity

Pour water on a variety of sediment samples to find how much water can be absorbed by the sample (porosity) and how easily water flows through the sample (permeability).

Understand how topographic maps work by creating a three-dimensional landscape and observing the corresponding contour lines. See how mountains, depressions, valleys and cliffs are represented on topographic maps. Fill in the landscape with water to demonstrate that contours are lines of constant elevation.

• #### Rock Classification

Try to classify a dozen different rock samples based on their appearance. Common characteristics of each major rock type are described. Rocks also can be classified by where they formed.

• #### Rock Cycle

Play the role of a piece of rock moving through the rock cycle. Select a starting location and follow many possible paths throughout the cycle. Learn how rocks are formed, weathered, eroded, and reformed as they move from Earth's surface to locations deep within the crust.